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The Civil War: Parliamentarians

During the English Civil War (1642-1651), the Parliamentarians fought against King Charles I and his supporters the Royalists. They supported the Parliament of England, challenging the absolute rule of Charles I. They had several advantages over the Royalists, including authority over the navy and significant financial resources. They anticipated the outcome of war and were strategic in securing sympathies in large towns by appointing supporters of their cause to office. In 1645, they established the New Model Army, whose soldiers were full time professionals that could be called to service anywhere in the country. The Royalists referred to the Parliamentarians as Roundheads, which mocked their short, cropped hairstyle. In the New Model Army it was a punishable offense to use the term. Eventually the conflicts and plots led to the trial and execution of Charles I, exile of his son King Charles II, replacement of the monarchy with the Commonwealth of England (1649-53) and Oliver Cromwell's rule (1653-59).

Bulstrode Whitelocke

Bulstrode Whitelocke

Diplomat, lawyer and politician; MP for Stafford, Great Marlow, Buckinghamshire, Oxford and Bedford
Sitter in 8 portraits