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Room 3

Uniting Kingdoms: Creating a Nation

Between 1603 and 1800, the nations of Scotland and Ireland came together with England and Wales to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The nations shared monarchs from 1603, but Acts of Union in 1707 with Scotland and in 1800 with Ireland linked these countries to England and Wales under one Parliament. The unions were created for political, religious and economic reasons. They created a new British identity and nation, and met with different forms of resistance from the wider population and from rival royal dynasties. Meanwhile, varied national identities were communicated in new literary forms. Literacy spread, fed by new translations of the Bible into Welsh, Irish and Scots Gaelic as well as English.

26 portraits on display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery

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The Gunpowder Plot Conspirators, 1605, by Crispijn de Passe the Elder - NPG 334a

The Gunpowder Plot Conspirators, 1605

by Crispijn de Passe the Elder
engraving, circa 1605
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 334a

William Shakespeare, associated with John Taylor - NPG 1

William Shakespeare

associated with John Taylor
oil on canvas, feigned oval, circa 1610
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 1

George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, by studio of William Larkin - NPG 3840

George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham

by studio of William Larkin
oil on canvas, circa 1616
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 3840

John Smith, by Simon de Passe - NPG 4594

John Smith

by Simon de Passe
line engraving, 1616
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 4594

King James I of England and VI of Scotland, by Daniel Mytens - NPG 109

King James I of England and VI of Scotland

by Daniel Mytens
oil on canvas, 1621
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 109

Princess Sophia, Electress of Hanover, by 'F.M.R.' - NPG 4520

Princess Sophia, Electress of Hanover

by 'F.M.R.'
marble bust, 1648
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 4520

John Bunyan, by Thomas Sadler - NPG 1311

John Bunyan

by Thomas Sadler
oil on canvas, 1684
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 1311

Sarah Churchill (née Jenyns (Jennings)), Duchess of Marlborough, after Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt - NPG 3634

Sarah Churchill (née Jenyns (Jennings)), Duchess of Marlborough

after Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt
oil on canvas, circa 1702, based on a work of circa 1702
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 3634

Queen Anne, by Michael Dahl - NPG 6187

Queen Anne

by Michael Dahl
oil on canvas, circa 1702
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 6187

King George I, by John Michael Rysbrack - NPG 4156

King George I

by John Michael Rysbrack
terracotta bust, circa 1720-1735
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 4156

Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, by John Michael Rysbrack - NPG 2126

Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford

by John Michael Rysbrack
terracotta bust, 1738
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 2126

Prince Charles Edward Stuart, by Louis Gabriel Blanchet - NPG 5517

Prince Charles Edward Stuart

by Louis Gabriel Blanchet
oil on canvas, 1738
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 5517

Flora Macdonald, by Richard Wilson - NPG 5848

Flora Macdonald

by Richard Wilson
oil on canvas, 1747
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 5848

Samuel Richardson, by Mason Chamberlin - NPG 6435

Samuel Richardson

by Mason Chamberlin
oil on copper, 1754 or before
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 6435

Samuel Johnson, by Sir Joshua Reynolds - NPG 1597

Samuel Johnson

by Sir Joshua Reynolds
oil on canvas, circa 1756
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 1597

James Macpherson, by George Romney - NPG 5804

James Macpherson

by George Romney
oil on canvas, 1779-1780
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 5804

Frances 'Fanny' Burney, by Edward Francisco Burney - NPG 2634

Frances 'Fanny' Burney

by Edward Francisco Burney
oil on canvas, circa 1785
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 2634

King George III, studio of Sir William Beechey - NPG 2502

King George III

studio of Sir William Beechey
oil on canvas, based on a work of circa 1800
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 2502

Henry Grattan, after Peter Turnerelli - NPG 1341

Henry Grattan

after Peter Turnerelli
plaster cast of bust, circa 1812-1813
On display in Room 3 on Floor 3 at the National Portrait Gallery
NPG 1341