Mahmud II(1784-1839), Ottoman sultan, reigned 1808-39
Sitter associated with 2 portraits
Mahmud II was the thirtieth Ottoman sultan, succeeding his half brother Mustafa IV. He bought about significant reforms in administration and reorganisation of the regime. In 1826, he was responsible for dismantling the Janissary corps, an elite Ottoman army of troops, and the subsequent establishment of a new western-style army. Under his reign the Ottoman Empire began to lose territories, Greece was the first to break away from the Ottoman Empire and gain independence. The consolidation of the Ottoman Empire through defeat in wars and loss of territory may have contributed to making new, westernised reforms that were continued by his sons and successors Abdulmecid I and Abdul Aziz, more successful.
by James Gillray, published by Hannah Humphrey
hand-coloured etching, published 11 July 1808
by John ('HB') Doyle, printed by Charles Etienne Pierre Motte, published by Thomas McLean
lithograph, published 23 October 1829
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