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Later Victorian Portraits Catalogue

Lionel Brough (1836-1909), Actor

I. IN PRIVATE CHARACTER
Paintings, drawings, sculptures and prints
Undated portraits
Photographs
II. IN STAGE CHARACTER (alphabetically by play)
Footnotes

I. IN PRIVATE CHARACTERback to top


Paintings, drawings, sculptures and printsback to top


publ. 1872
Pen and ink caricature by unidentified artist, monogrammed lower right, head, profile to right, on miniaturized body holding billiard cue; untraced. Repr. Entr’Acte, 28 Sept. 1872 (page no. not visible), captioned ‘A Popular Actor who has never been known to forget his lines’.

publ. 1875
Pen and ink caricature by ?Alfred Bryan, initialled lower left, head, to front, on miniaturized body, holding cards in left hand, looking towards Willie Edouin on left; untraced. Repr. Entr’Acte, 12 June 1875, p.7, captioned ‘Messrs Lionel Brough & Willie Edouin / A Pair of Popular Card-Sharpers’.

publ. 1877
Pen and ink caricature by Alfred Bryan, initialled lower left, head, profile to right, with large moustache, on miniaturized body, seated driving open carriage, left hand holding reins, right hand holding whip, wearing bowler hat and checked suit, accompanied by two lightly sketched children; untraced. Repr. Entr’Acte, 14 July 1877, p.8, captioned ‘Mr Lionel Brough / and his Pony Carriage will represent the Drama at the next Lord Mayor’s Show’.

c.1878
Lithograph by unidentified artist, bust-length, half-profile to left, wearing double-breasted coat with flower in buttonhole; print with facsimile signature ‘Yours very truly / Lionel Brough’ NPG SB (Brough), where date added in pencil.

The image appears to derive from an unidentified photograph.

c.1880
Lithograph by unidentified artist, vignette head-and-shoulders looking right, wide waxed moustache; untraced. Repr. with facsimile inscr. ‘yours very truly / Lionel Brough’ on cover of sheet music for ‘Put it in the bag!’ by H.B. Fernie, publ. J.B. Cramer, London.

The image is probably adapted from an unidentified photograph.

publ. 1884
Caricature designs by Alfred Bryan, head-and-shoulders vignette, to front, circled by 12 other sketches of Brough as himself and in character; untraced. Repr. Moonshine, 26 Jan. 1884, p.37, captioned ‘Days with Celebrities (136) Lionel Brough’. Each sketch is also captioned, as follows:
(a) on upper deck of bus, ‘If he rides into town on an omnibus he quite upsets it’;
(b) leaning from railway carriage window, ‘And if he takes the train it is always delayed – he is so full of funny stories’;
(c) raised finger pointing to right, ‘As Policeman X24’;
(d) with Prince of Wales, ‘H.R.H. likes to smoke a cigarette in his dressing room’;
(e) with William Ewart Gladstone, ‘And if he breakfasts in Downing Street, he is really quite too much for the G.O.M’;
(f) wearing riding hat and holding beer tankard, as Tony Lumpkin in She Stoops to Conquer, ‘The only representative of Tony Lumpkin that we have’;
(g) as Touchstone in As You Like It, ‘And he is an excellent exponent of Shakespearean comedy – a rare thing nowadays’;
(h) rear view, with two men in top hats, ‘A sketch near the Strand’;
(j) with boys, ‘He is very fond of juvenile parties’;
(k) rear view with overmantel, ‘He has had so many presents he hardly knows where to put them!’;
(l) seated at desk, ‘He is by no means a bad journalist and we believe … that he has lately taken to play writing!’;
(m) with crescent moon, ‘And Moonshine dubs him our best comedian’.

1889
Painting by Walter Goodman; no further details; untraced. Exh. Inst. of Oil Painters, 1889.

publ. 1891
Pen and ink caricature by Alfred Bryan, initialled, whole-length standing, profile to right, in shirt sleeves, with large moustache that he is shown preparing to shave off; untraced. Repr. Entr’Acte, 14 Nov. 1891, p.8, captioned ‘When Mr Lionel Brough plays the part of the Gravedigger, what is to become of that moustache on which he sets such store?’

c.1897
Crayon by J. Macbeth; no further details; untraced. Exh. Grafton G., 1897. Ref. Anon 1912.


Undated portraitsback to top


Watercolour portrait chargé by Frederick Sem, signed, whole-length, standing, to right, profile to right, holding fake blue beard, right hand on hip with bottle of Powell’s Balsam of Aniseed on floor to left hand side; Garrick Club, London, SEM09. Brough played Bluebeard in a burlesque production in 1874, and is also recorded as endorsing Powell’s Balsam. [1]

The likeness is adapted from a photograph by the London Stereoscopic & Photographic Co. (see below, ‘In private character, Photographs, mid-1860s’, pose (a)) and the image may relate to Sem’s Pantheon of Celebrities of the Day, a collection produced in 1876.

Pencil and ink preliminary sketch by Janet C.B. Whitman, ‘The Arcadians request the pleasure of the company of … at Henley on …’, design for an invitation to Henley Regatta depicting actors as oarsmen, with Brough as cox and Henry Irving as stroke; AG of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, Album [1972].603, annotated in ink ‘All the Characters would be in private dress’. Exh. Uncle Lal, AG of Ballarat, Oct.–Nov. 2010.

Ten other figures in the design are evidently intended as likenesses, but their identities are not ascertained.

Pastel caricature by Alfred Bryan, initialled lower left; head on miniaturized body; V&A, London, S.400-2010.

Pencil caricature by unidentified artist, inscr. ‘Billiards’, whole-length, profile to left, standing at billiard table, smoking cigar, holding cue in both hands, wearing bowler hat, second male figure to left chalking cue; AG of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, Album [1972].603, where conjecturally attributed to Phil May.

Pen and ink caricature by Harry Furniss, initialled lower left, inscr. upper right in a different hand ‘LAL BROUGH / PUBLISHER’, whole-length, to front, seated in office swivel-chair, holding newspaper before him; in background a caricature of Brough in costume ‘as Queen Elizabeth’; NPG D87.

This image invokes Brough’s career in journalism, albeit with a cross-reference to one of his early stage appearances in a burlesque.

Pen and ink caricature by Harry Furniss; see NPG 3556.


Photographsback to top


The Mander & Mitchenson Coll., U. of Bristol, contains other as yet uncatalogued photographs.

c.1853
Photograph by unidentified photographer, half-length, to front, wearing jacket with wide lapels and half-knotted tie with long ends. Repr. Strand, 1892, p. 498, captioned ‘age 17’.

c.1857
Photograph by unidentified photographer, head-and-shoulders vignette, profile to right, waxed moustache. Repr. Strand, 1892, p.498, captioned ‘age 21’.

1860
Carte-de-visite by Charles William Quinn, whole-length, to front, clean shaven, wearing frock coat, standing in photographer’s studio with upright chair to left, left hand in trouser pocket; V&A, London, S.134:51-2007, inscr. ‘To my dear friend Will Atkins from Lionel Brough / October 13th 1860 / (ye boys wedding day)’.

The inscription must refer to Will Atkins as Brough married in July 1862.

1862
Carte-de-visite by William Keith, Liverpool, ‘Members of the Savage Club’, whole-length in group in outdoor location, fifth from right, half-seated on end of table, legs crossed, wearing top hat, dark jacket, pale trousers; NPG x22196. Repr. Watson 1907, facing p. 48, captioned ‘The Savage Club Amateurs’; and Bradshaw 1958.

Dated to Sept. 1862 and identified as the group of Savage Club members who performed in Manchester and Liverpool on behalf of the Lancashire Cotton Famine Relief fund.

?early 1860s
Carte-de-visite by William Keith, Liverpool, head-and-shoulders vignette, near-profile to right, clean shaven, hair parted on right with visible quiff over forehead, wearing high-buttoned tweed jacket with striped tie; V&A, London, S.134:60-2007, inscr. ‘Your affectionate nephew / LAL Brough’.

mid-1860s
Carte-de-visite by William Keith, Liverpool, whole-length standing, looking down, on right in group with Edward Saker and an unidentified seated man; V&A, London, S.149:305-2007, inscr. ‘Edward Saker / + Lionel Brough / with ? / (Saker Collection) / Keith Liverpool)’.

Saker was based in Liverpool from 1865; Brough acted there until 1867.

Carte-de-visite by Frederick Albert Bridge, oval vignette, half-length, to front, clean shaven, wearing dark velvet waistcoat under paler wide-lapelled coat, watch on chain visible; V&A, London, S.134:44-2007, inscr. ‘Yours “unmusically” / Lionel Brough’.

Carte-de-visite by unidentified photographer, oval vignette, head-and-shoulders, to front, lips slightly parted, clean shaven, wearing coat with velvet collar, diagonally knotted tie, buttonhole; V&A, London, S.134:46-2007.

Cartes-de-visite by London Stereoscopic & Photographic Co., head-and-shoulders, clean shaven, wearing white tie, dark waistcoat, paler coat, two known poses:
(a) profile to right, hair parted on right; prints colls NPG Ax28516; and V&A, London, S.134:41-2007 (slightly cropped from foot). Repr. as vignette Duncan 1964, pl.13a. See NPG Portrait Set ‘The Tichborne Claimant Trial Album: cartes-de-visite by various photographers, 1860s–1870s’.
(b) profile, to left, bushy hair, no visible parting; V&A, London, S.134:43-2007.

Photograph by Carleton E. Watkins, oval vignette, head-and-shoulders, half-profile to right, clean shaven, wearing dark jacket over large flat tie with check pattern plus pin; V&A, London, S.134:45-2007.

c.1869
Photograph by unidentified photographer, three-quarter-length, half-profile to right, seated to right with legs crossed, holding small book. Repr. Strand, 1892, p.498, captioned ‘age 33’.

Carte-de-visite by W. & D. Downey, three-quarter-length standing, to front, right elbow resting on book on cabinet top, left hand in front trouser pocket; V&A, London, S.134:66-2007.

c.1875
Woodburytype carte-de-visite by unidentified photographer, head-and-shoulders, head turned to left, clean shaven, wearing wing collar over flat-knot tie, dark jacket with buttonhole in right lapel; prints colls NPG x4704, NPG Ax7673 and NPG x132955 (reversed thumbnail in tile form); Garrick Club, London, Photographs Box B; V&A, London, S.134:61-2007; and AG of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia. A print offered on eBay 2015 was inscr. with sitter’s name and ‘Oct 3 /75’ and described as a carte-de-visite photograph ‘issued with the Figaro programme’.

See NPG Portrait Set Terence Pepper gift: photographs, prints and drawings, 1808–2008’.

Carte-de-visite by Fradelle & Marshall, head-and-shoulders, to right, wearing large flat-knot tie under tweed-type jacket, buttonhole in left lapel; V&A, London, S.134:59-2007.

Probably used as basis for lithograph vignette showing head at same angle but different tie and no buttonhole, publ. on cover of sheet music entitled ‘“That’s the Sort of Man I am!”/ Bluebeard’s Song’, publ. Metzler & Co., c.1874.

1870s
Cartes-de-visite by Window & Grove, head-and-shoulders vignettes, with waxed moustache, wearing large windsor-knot tie and checked jacket, two known poses:
(a) head slightly turned and looking to left; V&A, London, S.134:42-2007, inscr. ‘With best thanks / yours very truly / Lionel Brough’).
(b) shoulders to right, looking directly to camera; V&A, London, S.134:48-2007.

before 1883
Photograph by unidentified photographer; no further details. Included in a memorial volume containing 280 portraits of members of the Savage Club, arranged in order of seniority, produced by Marcus Ward & Co. and presented to the Prince of Wales on 21 Feb. 1883, to mark his election to the Club. It is not known which likeness was included, nor the current location of the album. Ref. Watson 1907, p.177.

1883–4
Photographs probably by Alexander Bassano for St James’s Photographic Co., two known poses:
(a) head-and-shoulders, head turned to right, wide but neat moustache, wearing dark jacket, buttonhole in left lapel, handkerchief visible in left breast pocket; prints colls Garrick Club, London, Athole Stewart Album no.139; and V&A, London, S.134-62.2007 (carte-de-visite). Woodburytype publ. with facsimile signature The Theatre, vol.3, May 1884, facing p.311, captioned ‘An ill-favoured thing, Sir, but mine own’; prints NPG x4705 and NPG x6419.
(b) half-length, head turned slightly further to right than in (a), four buttons visible above check trousers; carte-de-visite publ. St James’s Studio; prints colls Garrick Club, London, Photographs Box C; and V&A, London, S.134:65-2007.

c.1892
Photograph by Alfred Ellis, head-and-shoulders, to front, showing gaze to left, clean shaven, wearing coat with dogtooth weave. Photogravure by Direct Photo Engraving Co. repr. Strand, 1892, p.498, showing gaze to right, captioned ‘The present day’.

This could represent two poses, but seems more likely to be reversed.

reg. 1894
Photograph by Francis Henry Hart for Joseph John Elliott, three-quarter-length seated, profile view, reading letter; reg. for copyright 1894 Apr. 4: National Archives (COPY 1/416/23).

This may represent Brough in character but if so the role is not identifiable.

reg. 1896
Cabinet card by Alfred Ellis, three-quarter-length, profile to right, with Sydney Brough on right; reg. for copyright 1896 July 9: National Archives (COPY 1/425/686); half-length prints colls Garrick Club, Athole Stewart Album no.140; and Billy Rose Theatre Division, NYPL, image ID 113390, inscr. ‘“The Theatre” August 1896’.

before 1897
Cabinet card by Protheroe & Son, Bristol, head-and-shoulders, profile to right, grey hair brushed back, wearing tweed coat over cravat with diamond pin; AG of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, 2011.224.11, inscr. by sitter ‘Yours always / Lal Brough / [?]Nov 29/97’.

?c.1900
Carte-de-visite by unidentified photographer, head-and-shoulders, to front, white hair almost back-lit and on end, large moustache, wing collar, white tie with pin; V&A, London, S.134:63-2007.

publ. 1903
Photograph by Alfred Ellis & Walery, whole-length, to front, seated lying back in garden chair, at home in Lambeth, with daughter Mary and dog on right. Repr. Bystander, 14 June 1903, p.525, captioned ‘“Lal” Brough and his daughter Miss Mary Brough in the garden of Percy Villa’.

publ. 1904
Photographs by Pictorial Agency, wearing dark suit and homburg hat, three known poses:
(a) whole-length standing, profile to right, left hand raised, pointing at gardener on right, captioned ‘“I am very explicit in the directions I give the gardener every morning”’.
(b) half-length, to front, standing amid tall plants, wife on left, captioned ‘“We have a fine crop of Indian corn, all our own growing”’.
(c) half-length, to front, seated on garden chair by ornamental pool, with wife on left, dog on right, captioned ‘“Quite a family party eh? Mrs Brough, myself and the dog who rules the roost”’.

All repr. ‘Fifty Years on the Stage: Some Stories of Mr Lionel Brough’, Penny Magazine, no.426, 1904, pp.394–5.

1905
Cabinet photographs by Alexander Corbett, four poses reg. for copyright 1905 Feb. 9:
(a) head-and-shoulders, to front, flower in buttonhole: National Archives (COPY 1/482/211(12)).
(b) half-length, to front, arms folded on back of chair: National Archives (COPY 1/482/211(13)).
(c) half-length, seated at table, looking down at book, right hand to cheek: National Archives (COPY 1/482/211(14)).
(d) three-quarter-length, rear view, seated at table, head half-turned to camera, smoking: National Archives (COPY 1/482/211(15)).

Carte-de-visite by Alfred Ellis, head-and-shoulders, to left, white hair, clean shaven, wearing wing collar and white tie over ?grey jacket, two-rose buttonhole in left lapel; V&A, London, S.134:64-2007.

This is probably image (a) reg. by Alexander Corbett, who worked for the Ellis firm.

c.1905–8
Photograph by Lizzie Caswall Smith, half-length, turned to left, right hand to cheek. Repr. as postcard, 137 x 43mm, Stageland series; prints colls NPG Ax45823, inscr. ‘Yours truly Lionel Brough’ (message on reverse requesting autograph); and Garrick Club, Dorothy Burr Postcard Album, no.134.

Photograph by Reginald Haines, half-length seated, looking to camera, wearing wing collar, white tie under dark coat with watch-chain. Repr. as postcard, publ. Rotary Photographic Co. Ltd; print NPG x4706.

reg. 1907
Photograph by Mabel Shadwell Clerke, head-and-shoulders; reg. for copyright 1907 June 17: National Archives (COPY 1/510/177).


II. IN STAGE CHARACTER (alphabetically by play)back to top


As You Like It (as ‘Touchstone’)

1880
Pen and ink design by Matt Stretch, signed and dated May 1880, whole-length standing, near-profile to left, wearing jester’s costume, right hand outstretched, left hand holding puppet stick; untraced. Repr. Illustrated Sporting & Dramatic News, 22 May 1880, p.232 (‘Mr Lionel Brough as “Touchstone”’). For design by Leslie Ward (‘Spy’) after Stretch see below, ‘In stage character, As You Like It, publ. 1905’.

It is not clear when Brough played this role at later dates or whether it became his ‘signature’ image.

publ. 1884
Caricature design by Alfred Bryan; see above, ‘In private character, Paintings, drawings, sculptures and prints, publ. 1884’, pose (g).

1892
Drawing by Thomas Walter Wilson, signed and dated, half-length standing, to left, in centre of composite multi-figure group; untraced. Image of Brough taken from photograph by London Stereoscopic & Photographic Co.; see below, ‘In stage character, As You Like It, Photographs, c.1880’.

Engr. by Richard Taylor repr. ILN, 28 Jan. 1893, pp. 116–17, captioned ‘The Dramatic Profession of To-Day’, Brough no.23 on key (p.118).

See also: Farren, Forbes-Robertson, Hare, Irving, James, Langtry, Moore, Terry, Toole, Tree, Wyndham.

publ. 1905
Caricature design by Leslie Ward (‘Spy’), whole-length, looking to right, wearing jester’s tunic, black boots, left hand pointing up to right; untraced. Repr. Vanity Fair, 30 Mar. 1905 (‘Men of the Day no. 947’, captioned ‘A fellow of infinite jest’); see NPG D45268.

The Vanity Fair text states: ‘A great benefit performance is being arranged for Uncle Lal on the stage of His Majesty’s. It will afford an opportunity of displaying their feelings to the friends of the man who is without an enemy.’ The benefit performance appears to have taken place in June 1905.

undated
Pen and ink design by Adrian Scott Stokes, signed lower left, whole-length, in jester’s costume, looking left to jester’s stick held in right hand, left hand gesturing towards it; untraced. Engr. by Swain after Stokes, captioned ‘Lionel Brough as Touchstone’; loose print NPG SB (Brough).

Apparently drawn from the photograph by the London Stereoscopic & Photographic Co. of Brough in this role with identical costume but some alterations in pose; see below, ‘In stage character, As You Like It, Photographs, c.1880’, pose (b).

Oil by Charles Buchel, signed, whole-length standing, elbows raised to support Celia on left and Rosalind on right; Folger Shakespeare L., Washington, DC. digital ID 35757.

Although itemized merely as figures from As You Like It, the central figure’s facial features resemble Brough’s and the costume (but not cap) of Touchstone is similar to that worn by him in this role.

Photographs

c.1880
Photographs by London Stereoscopic & Photographic Co., in jester costume with puppet head on pole, two known poses:
(a) three-quarter-length, half profile to left, holding jester pole against right cheek; V&A, London, S.134:47-2007.
(b) whole-length standing, to left, right hand holding jester pole to left, left hand across chest, grass and foliage on floor; prints colls Harvard Theatre Coll., Houghton L., Harvard U., TCS 1.3704; and V&A, London, S.134:49-2007 (cropped from foot).

Date proposed in relation to image in Illustrated Sporting & Dramatic News; see above, ‘In stage character, As You Like It, 1880’. Brough played this role at Drury Lane Theatre spring 1880.

Bluebeard (burlesque) (as ‘Bluebeard’)
Opened in London Sept. 1874; subsequently toured USA.

1874–5
Ink drawing by Janet Whitman, monogrammed, whole-length standing, to front, hands on hips, wearing pantomime costume with crown and cloak, on seaside pier with figure, boats and horizon in background; AG of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, Album [1972].603. Exh. Uncle Lal, AG of Ballarat, Oct.–Nov. 2010, (from captions) ‘in costume as the pantomime character Bluebeard seems to show him looking out of place on the pier of an English seaside resort’.

Photographs

1874
Carte-de-visite by London Stereoscopic & Photographic Co., three-quarter-length standing, looking to left, hands on belt, wearing elaborate pantomime-style costume, comic moustache and cap with three cockades; V&A, London, S.134:54-2007.

The Bondman (as ‘Grandfather’)

1906
Design by Norman Morrow, initialled, three scenes with many figures; untraced. Repr. Bystander, 24 Sept. 1906, p.657. Brough is not easily distinguished among the cast of characters sketched in thumbnail manner.

Photographs

1906
Photograph by Herbert Ernest Coston and Aron Hamburger for Dover Street Studios Ltd, whole-length seated, reading newspaper; reg. for copyright 1906 Oct. 31: National Archives (COPY 1/502/435).

Photograph by unidentified photographer, whole-length standing, to front, left hand holding hat to cheek, (Thomas) Henry Gartside Neville and Marie Illington on right; V&A, London, S.2012-2015, inscr. ‘The Bondman / Drury Lane 20 Sep 1906 / Act II. Lionel Brough as Grandfather, Henry Neville as Adam Fairbrother, Marie Illington as Mrs Fairbrother’.

Box and Cox (as ‘Cox’)

1883
Caricature by Alfred Bryan, whole-length standing, profile to left, wearing makeshift apron, right hand holding out gridiron with lamb chop, left hand pointing left to Edward Saker as Box; untraced. Repr. Moonshine, 10 Feb. 1883, p.70.

A Bunch of Violets (as ‘Mark Murgatroyd’)

1894
Design by unidentified artist, whole-length standing, profile to left, wearing formal dress, white hair and beard; untraced. Repr. Graphic, 5 May 1894, captioned ‘Scene from the third act of “A Bunch of Violets” at the Haymarket Theatre’.

La Cigale (as ‘Matthew Vanderkoopen’)
Opened at Lyric Theatre 9 Oct. 1890.

1890
Design by Alfred Bryan, ‘The Anniversary of “La Cigale” at the Lyric Theatre’, head-and-shoulders, profile to right, grey hair, curled moustache (not in costume). Repr. with many other figures, probably from audience, Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, 17 Oct. 1891, p.176.

Photographs

1890
Photograph by London Stereoscopic & Photographic Co., whole-length standing, hands on hips, wearing stage costume with tricorne hat and long cloak. Photogravure, entitled ‘Mr Lionel Brough: A Reminiscence of “La Cigale”’, repr. Pearson’s Photographic Portfolio of Footlight Favourites, publ. 1894–5.

Chromolithograph after London Stereoscopic & Photographic Co.; prints colls NPG SB (Brough); V&A, London, S.3164-2009; and BM, 1939,1014.77.

Possibly in this role: photograph by W. & D. Downey, three-quarter-length standing, to front, hands on hips, with wig and curled moustache, wearing elaborate ‘James II’-style costume with decorated cuffs, cape and beribboned hat; Harvard Theatre Coll., Houghton L., Harvard U., TCS 1.3701, where role not identified.

The Commodore (as ‘The Commodore’)
A dramatic adaptation of Jacques Offenbach’s opera La Créole, performed in London and New York in 1886.

c.1886
Gouache drawing, 240 x 175mm, by Lucien Besche, initialled lower right, whole-length, to front, horizontal moustaches, wearing 18th-century stage costume, tricorne hat, boots, right hand on cane, left hand on sheathed sword; NPG D42.

The Critic (as ‘Sir Walter Raleigh’)

?1902
Two sketches by unidentified artist on single sheet of notepaper embossed ‘CB’, possibly representing Brough, wearing historical costume; AG of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, Album [192].603:
(a) recto, pencil, three-quarter-length standing, slightly to left, looking to viewer, right arm raised high in histrionic gesture.
(b) verso, inscr. upper right ‘a collar not whiskers’, pencil and ink wash, whole-length standing, to front, right hand to brow in gesture of desperation, left arm extended holding unidentified object.

Exh. Uncle Lal, AG of Ballarat, Oct.–Nov. 2010, where production conjecturally identified as ‘an 18th century or Regency comedy, perhaps Sheridan’s The Critic’. The Critic was produced at the Lyric Theatre, London, in Dec. 1902 and this seems a plausible identification.

Dearer than Life (as ‘Uncle Ben Garner’)

1868
Oil painting by unidentified artist, with John Lawrence Toole, no further details; untraced; until 1906 with Toole. Ref. Anon 1912: ‘an oil painting of Brough and Toole in “Dearer than Life” was sold at the Toole sale in November 1906.’

Possibly related: lithograph, two actors in costume shaking each other by the hand, on cover of sheet music entitled ‘The Grasp of an Honest Man’, from Henry James Byron’s ‘greatly successful drama “Dearer than Life”, written expressly for Mr J.L. Toole’, publ. by Hopwood & Crewe, London; V&A, London, S.332-2012.

Photographs

1868
Cabinet card by General Photographic Agency, eight members of cast around a table, Brough third from right, whole-length seated, to left, at right-hand edge of table, wearing grey wig and cap with checked/tartan band, holding wine bottle; prints colls V&A, London, S.145:6-2007; and Getty Images 3065359, where photograph credited and dated June 1868. Repr. Picture Post, 15 July 1939, p.35; and Trewin 1980, p.22.

See also Irving, Toole, Wyndham.

Cartes-de-visite by London Stereoscopic Co., from production at Queen’s Theatre, Long Acre, Jan. 1868, seven known poses:
(a) whole-length, to left, standing with bent knees, wearing white wig and dark morning coat, holding long-stem pipe, broken dining chair to right; V&A, London, S.134:52-2007.
(b) whole-length, slightly to left, mouth open, hands gesturing to left and down, knees slightly bent, wearing long coat over shabby clothes; V&A, London, S.134:57-2007.
(c) whole-length, profile to left, wearing shabby clothes, seated at table with wine bottle opposite John Lawrence Toole; V&A, London, S.139:388-2007.
(d) similar to (c) but Brough turned to front; V&A, London, S.139:386-2007.
(e) whole-length standing, to front, wearing long coat, leaning away from Toole on left, who is grasping Brough’s collar; V&A, London, S.139:394-2007.
(f) whole-length standing, to front, wearing short jacket and cap with checked/tartan band, turning to right away from Toole on left, holding candlestick; V&A, London, S.139:392-2007.
(g) half-length standing, profile to left, hands on table, wearing checked cap, Toole seated to left; Garrick Club, London, Willoughby Album 2, no.180.

The Eternal City (as ‘Bruno Rocco’)
Opened at His Majesty’s Theatre Oct. 1902.

Photographs

publ. 1902
Photograph by Biograph Studio, whole-length standing, to front, wearing convict uniform, chains and shackles. Repr. Sketch, 12 Nov. 1902, p.125.

The Forty Thieves (unidentified character)

Photographs

1878
Carte-de-visite by Elliott & Fry, whole-length standing, to front, wearing beard, turban and ‘oriental’ costume, with Eleanor Bufton, Lydia Thompson and an unidentified male actor; V&A, London, S.141:816-2007. Perhaps from production at Gaiety Theatre, Feb. 1878.

Hamlet (as ‘First Gravedigger’)

Photograph

1906
Photograph by Biograph Studio, head-and-shoulders, half-profile to right, wearing straggly wig and tattered costume. Bromide postcard, publ. Rotary Photographic Co. Ltd; prints colls NPG x196497; and Garrick Club, London, David Allen Postcard Album no.25, with autograph signature.

See NPG Portrait Set Terence Pepper gift: photographs, prints and drawings, 1808–2008’.

Brough played this role in New York, where the Biograph Studio was based, but this image probably dates from the London production in June 1906.

Hamlet (burlesque) (as ‘The King’)

1877
Design by unidentified artist, whole-length standing, to front, wearing crown, belted tunic and ermine-trimmed robe, left hand raised holding baton; untraced. Repr. Illustrated Sporting & Dramatic News, 30 June 1877, p.35.

Henry IV, Part 1 (as ‘Bardolph’)

1896
Design by Frederick Pegram, whole-length standing in composite image, rear view, profile to right, wearing long cloak; untraced. Repr. ILN, 16 May 1896, p.617; see V&A, London, S.144-2010, where described as ‘depicting various scenes from Henry IV Part One at the Haymarket Theatre’.

See also Tree, Waller.

Photographs

reg. 1896
Cabinet cards by Alexander Corbett for Alfred Ellis, two poses reg. for copyright 1896 July 6:
(a) three-quarter length, solo figure: National Archives (COPY 1/425/614).
(b) with Herbert Beerbohm Tree: National Archives (COPY 1/425/615).

Martha (as ‘The Beadle’)

1873
Costume design by ‘Mr Phillips’ (artist otherwise unidentified), no further details; Harvard Theatre Coll., Houghton L., Harvard U., MS Thr 587 (56).

In a series of designs for productions at the Gaiety Theatre, London.

La Mascotte (as ‘Laurent XVII’)

1881
Design by Horace Morehen, among whole cast at Comedy Theatre, whole-length standing, wearing doublet and hose, ruff and pantomime crown, right arm extended; untraced. Engr. by John Swain repr. Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, 22 Oct. 1881, p.128.

Photographs

1881
Photograph by unidentified photographer, in group with five other performers, wearing Tudor-style costume and comic hat; V&A, London, S.136:266-2007, where date given.

Masters Sandford and Merton (as ‘Mr Barlow MA’)

1893
Pen and ink by Bernard Partridge, initialled, whole-length standing, to front, hands clasped, wearing schoolmaster’s gown and mortarboard; V&A, London, S.3763-2013. Repr. Punch, 6 Jan. 1894, p. 9.

The Miller and His Men (as ‘Lavinia’)

Photographs

1864
Carte-de-visite by unidentified photographer, presumed in Liverpool, whole-length standing, to front, looking to right, in female wig and costume, hands in large pale gloves raised to right shoulder; V&A, London, S.134:53-2007, where character given as ‘Ravina’.

Brough took this role at the Prince of Wales’s Theatre, Liverpool, in 1864.

The Mountebanks (as ‘Pietro’)
Comic opera staged at the Lyric Theatre in Jan. 1892.

Photographs

1892
Photograph by Ellis & Saunders, whole-length standing, to front, left hand on hip, right hand holding tasselled pole, wearing conical hat, ruff, riding coat over striped pantaloons. Repr. Sketch, 28 Mar. 1894, p.461, captioned ‘In the Mountebank’.

Much Ado about Nothing (as ‘Verges’)

1905
Oil on canvas, 532 x 391mm, by Charles A. Buchel, half-length seated, half-profile to right, looking up, hands clasped on lap; M. of London, 56.169/30.

Ink and wash with white, by Samuel Begg, in composite image of characters, half-length, to front, looking out of window, hands clasped on sill; Folger Shakespeare L., Washington, DC. digital ID 35694.

Nell Gwynne (as ‘The Beadle’)
Opened at Avenue Theatre (today Playhouse Theatre) 7 Mar. 1884.

1884
Design by Phil May, whole-length standing, to front, holding beadle’s staff, wearing flower garland on head and short ‘Miss Muffet’ dress over dark tights; untraced. Repr. Sketch 28 Mar. 1894, p.462.

Once upon a Time (as ‘The Basket-maker’)

Photographs

publ. 1894
Photograph by Ellis & Saunders, three-quarter-length seated, to front, wearing rustic smock and conical hat, holding half-woven basket. Repr. Sketch, 18 Apr. 1894, p.619, where attribution, title of production at Haymarket Theatre and name of character given.

The Paper Chase (as ‘Mr Busby’, ‘an old gentleman who has lost his memory’)

publ. 1888
Pen and ink caricature by Alfred Bryan, initialled lower right, inscr. upper left ‘Mr Lionel / Brough / and / Miss Brough’ and lower left ‘[L?]y title’, whole-length standing, slightly to left, wearing formal dress including top hat, dark gloves, high collar, cravat and pince-nez, with lightly sketched figure of daughter Margaret to right; untraced.

Lithograph after Bryan; print exh. Uncle Lal, AG of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, Oct.–Nov. 2010, where tentatively identified as printer’s proof. Repr. Illustrated Sporting & Dramatic News, 28 July 1888, p.609.

Resurrection (as ‘A Merchant’)
Opened at His Majesty’s Theatre Mar. 1903.



1903
Photograph by unidentified photographer for Play Pictorial, whole-length standing, to front, hands in waistcoat armholes, under long gabardine coat.

Postcard, publ. Raphael Tuck & Sons, Play Pictorial series, captioned ‘Mr Lionel Brough as “A Merchant” / Act II, scene 1’; seen on eBay 2016.

Richard II (as ‘Gardener’)

1903
Pen and ink drawing by Reginald Cleaver, three-quarter-length standing, profile to left, hands on belt of tunic, cap on head, on page of designs showing actors and costumes for production at His Majesty’s Theatre; Folger Shakespeare L., Washington, DC, digital ID 35805. Repr. Sketch, 16 Sept. 1903.

Pen and ink drawing by Oliver Paque, Scenes from Richard II, signed and dated 1903, whole-length standing, to front, wearing tunic and tights, no headgear; Folger Shakespeare L., Washington, DC, digital ID 36269.

Photographs

c.1903
Photographs by Lizzie Caswall Smith, two known poses:
(a) half-length, looking to right, arms crossed on chest. Postcard, publ. J. Beagles & Co.; print NPG x196496. See NPG Portrait Set Terence Pepper gift: photographs, prints and drawings, 1808–2008’.
(b) whole-length standing, near-profile to left, right hand raised in admonition. Photogravure by Vertue & Co.; Folger Shakespeare L., Washington, DC, digital ID 28456, captioned ‘Gardener (Lionel Brough)’.

Rip van Winkle (as ‘Nick Vedder’)

1882
Caricature design by Horace Morehen, whole-length standing, profile to left, in inn-keeper costume, smoking long Dutch pipe; untraced. Repr. Illustrated Sporting & Dramatic News, 28 Oct. 1882, p.156.

Design probably by Alfred Bryan, whole-length standing, to front, right hand in apron pocket; untraced. Repr. Dramatic Notes, Jan. 1883, p.53; see Wikipedia.

Watercolour on card by Janet Whitman, inscr. ‘Nick Vedder’ top right, dated 26 Mar. 1883, whole-length, profile to left, wearing yellow stockings, blue breeches, white apron, patterned waistcoat, dancing and playing pipe; AG of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, Album [1972].603. Exh. Uncle Lal, AG of Ballarat, Oct.–Nov. 2010.

The School for Scandal (as ‘Moses’)

Photographs

1909
Photograph by Daily Mirror, far right in group with Herbert Beerbohm Tree and two other men, whole-length standing, profile to left, right hand extended.

Postcard, publ. J. Beagles & Co.; prints colls NPG x8738 (‘Members of the cast of “The School for Scandal”’); and Garrick Club, London, Photograph Box B.

She Stoops to Conquer (as ‘Tony Lumpkin’)
One of Brough’s most popular roles. He first played it in 1869, achieving 777 performances in total.

c.1870
Caricature drawing by Frederick Waddy, initialled, whole-length, to front, large head on miniaturized body, wearing riding habit, seated with legs on table, balancing beer-mug on left foot; untraced. Repr. Once a Week, 20 Apr. 1872, p.368; and Waddy 1873.

Photorelief ‘after Frederick Waddy’; BM, 1982,U.4281.

Watercolour copy by L.J. Binns, signed and inscr. by sitter ‘Yours truly / Lionel Brough / July 20th 1905’; Billy Rose Theatre Division, NYPL, image ID 1628832.

publ. 1877
Pen and ink thumbnail sketch by unidentified artist, three-quarter-length standing, profile to right, wearing bowler hat, holding whip, cigarette in mouth; untraced. Repr. Entr’Acte, 7 Apr. 1877 (no page no.) to mark benefit performance at Gaiety Theatre.

publ. 1884
Caricature design by Alfred Bryan; see above, ‘In private character, Paintings, drawings, sculptures and prints, publ. 1884’, pose (f).

publ. 1887
Pen and ink caricature by Alfred Bryan, initialled, whole-length standing, leaning to right, outsize head, wearing 18th-century costume (hatless), holding clay pipe in left hand, tankard in right; untraced. Repr. Entr’Acte, 5 Mar. 1887, p.8, captioned ‘Mr Lionel Brough / Tony Lumpkin’.

1889
Pen and ink sketch by Frank Manning, in letter to Brough signed and dated 21 Oct. 1889, whole-length, to front, head on diminutive body, smiling, hands in breeches pockets; AG of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, Album [1972].603, filed with envelope postmarked ‘Hull Aug 21 88’, but on autograph letter signed dated ‘Newport Oct 21st 89’.

publ. 1894
Design by Phil May, signed, whole-length, to front, head profile to right, wearing tricorne hat and 18th-century costume; untraced. Repr. Sketch, 28 Mar. 1894, p.461.

after 1899
Pen and ink design by E.W. Tarver or ‘B.P’, half-length standing, looking left; untraced. Repr. in souvenir booklet for St James’s Theatre, 1900, p.62, with similar thumbnail drawing of Charles Wyndham; see V&A, London, S.5470:13-2009.

undated
Watercolour drawing by Janet Whitman, monogrammed lower right, inscr. ‘“TONY”’ at foot, whole-length, profile to left, smiling, wearing black riding hat, red coat, white breeches and riding boots, smoking long pipe in right hand, left hand in pocket; AG of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, Album [1972].603. Exh. Uncle Lal, AG Ballarat, Oct.–Nov. 2010.

Design by Alfred Bryan, initialled, half-length, profile to left, wearing jockey’s cap and jacket, left hand holding pipe, right hand holding beer tankard; untraced. Print (no further details) MEPL 11015119, captioned ‘Fal-LAL-la’.

Photographs

publ. 1894
Photograph by unidentified photographer, whole-length seated, to front, legs splayed, left hand on hip, right hand holding long stick, wearing jockey’s costume and hat. Repr. Sketch, 28 Mar. 1894, p.461.

undated
Carte-de-visite by London Stereoscopic & Photographic Co., whole-length to front, wearing jockey’s costume, standing with knees bent and arms down to sides, mouth open; V&A, London, S.134:56-2007

Sweet Nell of Old Drury (as ‘Percival’)

Photographs

1900
Photograph by unidentified photographer, whole-length standing, profile to right, boy actor Clito Clifford to right. Repr. Illustrated Sporting & Dramatic News, 29 Sept. 1900, image (e) (no page no.).

Possibly the same image: cabinet print by Alexander Corbett for Alfred Ellis, whole-length standing, with another man; reg. for copyright 1900 Oct. 2: National Archives (COPY 1/448/30 (14)).

The Tempest (as ‘Trinculo’)
Produced at His Majesty’s Theatre Sept. 1904.

1904
Pen and ink drawing by Arthur C. Michael, signed and dated 190[4], two images on sheet showing several characters, including Herbert Beerbohm Tree, in both Brough whole-length standing, wearing jester’s cap and belted tunic with wineskin at waist; Folger Shakespeare L., Washington, DC, digital ID 36239. Repr. Black & White, 24 Sept. 1904, p.425.

Ink and white wash drawing by Frederick Henry Townsend, signed and dated, showing moment from Act 2, scene 1, half-length, looking right, hands raised in alarm, no headgear; Folger Shakespeare L., Washington, DC, digital ID 36628.

1903–4
Ink wash and charcoal by Charles A. Buchel, signed and dated, whole-length standing, looking right, wearing jester’s cap, tunic and boots, on beach with Herbert Beerbohm Tree as Caliban and Louis Calvert as Stefano; Folger Shakespeare L., Washington, DC, digital ID 35773. Repr. Sphere, 24 Sept. 1904, p.271.

This image is believed to date from a production in 1903 or 1904.

Pen and ink drawing by Alexander Stuart Boyd, signed, whole-length standing, wearing jester’s cap, tunic and parti-coloured tights, left hand on hip, right hand extended, in composite image of characters including Herbert Beerbohm Tree as Caliban, kneeling to right, arms outstretched to right; Folger Shakespeare L., Washington, DC, digital ID 35722.

This image is believed to date from a production in 1903 or 1904.

Trilby (as ‘The Laird’)

1895
Pen and ink design by Alexander Stuart Boyd, signed, on sheet with several characters, whole-length, profile to right, advancing to right with right hand outstretched; V&A, London, S.1086-1983.

Thought to have been drawn for an as-yet unidentified periodical.

Photographs

1895
Photographs by Thomas Charles Turner, two known poses:
(a) whole-length standing, wearing overcoat and straw hat, hands in trouser pockets, pipe in mouth; reg. for copyright 1895 Dec. 12: National Archives (COPY 1/422/883).

Photogravure after Turner by J.S. Virtue & Co. Ltd; NPG x6420.

(b) three-quarter-length, looking to left, standing in front of artist’s easel, holding palette and mahl-stick, left hand in trouser pocket, pipe in mouth. Bromide postcard, publ. Rotary Photographic Co. Ltd; print NPG x196495.

See NPG Portrait Set Terence Pepper gift: photographs, prints and drawings, 1808–2008’.

Cabinet photographs by Alexander Corbett for Alfred Ellis, six known poses:
(a) ‘seated at easel’; reg. for copyright 1895 Dec. 17: National Archives (COPY 1/422/935).
(b) whole-length, with Edmund Maurice (‘full length of group of Mr Maurice and Lionel Brough’); reg. for copyright 1896 Jan. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/423/176).
(c) ‘full length … sitting with pipe in mouth’; reg. for copyright 1896 Jan. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/423/177).
(d) ‘full length … standing in hat and coat’; reg. for copyright 1896 Jan. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/423/178).
(e) ‘full length, sitting painting at easel’; reg. for copyright 1896 Jan. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/413/179).
(f) ‘looking down with hands in pockets’, with Maurice and Henry Vernon Esmond; reg. for copyright 1896 Jan. 15: National Archives (COPY 1/423/181).

Of these (c) or (e) may be image showing figure seated alongside easel, left elbow resting on easel, right hand holding palette, pipe in mouth, repr. uncredited Sketch, 25 Dec. 1895, Supplement p.5, captioned ‘Mr Lionel Brough as The Laird’.

Twelfth Night (as ‘Sir Toby Belch’)
Production opened at Her Majesty’s Theatre Feb. 1901.

1901
Ink design by Cyrus C. Cuneo, signed and dated 1901, whole-length, profile to right, wearing large ruff and elaborate tabard, bending forward behind hedge watching Malvolio; untraced. Repr. Black & White, 16 Feb. 1901, p.214.

1901–2
Painting by Charles A. Buchel, whole-length seated, looking up to left, legs apart, left hand on sword hilt, tankard on table to right; untraced. See Genius website.

Watercolour caricature by L.J. Binns, signed and inscr. ‘Yours truly Lionel Brough / Feby 14 1902’, whole-length seated, legs stretched to left, wearing Elizabethan costume plus hat with feather, right hand holding bottle, left hand holding glass; Billy Rose Theatre Division, NYPL, image ID 1628833.

Photographs

1901
Photograph by Foulsham & Banfield, three-quarter-length, half-profile to left, seated, looking down at tankard, eyes closed, smiling, hair standing on end, wearing fustian jerkin with high collar. Repr. Black & White, Oct. 1902 (no further details), captioned ‘Mr Lionel Brough is as popular in the profession as with the public and his fund of genial anecdotes is said to be absolutely inexhaustible. Here he is in his favourite character of Sir Toby Belch.’

Cigarette card, head-and-shoulders detail, publ. Ogden’s, Guinea Gold series no.105, captioned ‘Lionel Brough’. Series issued 1900–1902.

doubtful photograph
Photograph by unidentified photographer, bust-length, half-profile to left, right hand to cheek. Repr. Sketch, 6 Feb. 1901, p.117, captioned ‘Mr Lionel Brough who plays Sir Toby Belch / Production of “Twelfth Night” at Her Majesty’s Theatre’. However, this costume appears more appropriate to the character of Gravedigger in Hamlet.

Ulysses (as ‘Eumaeus’)

1902
Painting by Charles A. Buchel, signed and dated, whole-length standing, to front, legs apart, holding long stick behind back, wearing belted tunic and animal skin cape; untraced. Repr. as colour plate in souvenir programme for 60th performance at His Majesty’s Theatre 1902, publ. Carl Hentschel.

La Vie Parisienne (as ‘Baron von Gondremarke’)
Opened at Holborn Theatre 30 Mar. 1872.

after 1872
Design by unidentified artist, nearly whole-length standing, near-profile to left, reading memorandum in right hand, left hand behind back; untraced. Repr. on poster by Willing & Co, advertising ‘Holborn Theatre / Mr Lionel Brough as Baron Gondremarke. / Vat-a Larks’; see V&A, London, S.1216-1995.

‘Vat-a Larks!’ was a catch-phrase from Gondremarke.

publ. 1883
Design by Alfred Bryan, whole-length standing, profile to right, left hand gesturing upwards, wearing frogged and fur-trimmed cape and curious phrygian cap with peak; untraced. Repr. Entr’Acte, 3 Nov. 1883, p.8, captioned ‘Mr Lionel Brough / La[l] Vie’.

1883
Design by unidentified artist, whole-length standing, to left, wearing 18th-century costume, hands in waistcoat fob pockets; untraced. Repr. Graphic, 22 Dec. 1883, p.612, in double-spread captioned ‘Plays at Some of the London Theatres’.

See also Forbes-Robertson, Toole, Tree.

1883–4
Design by unidentified artist, whole-length standing, legs splayed, in pirate costume, holding long-necked bottle; untraced. Repr. Punch, 19 Jan. 1884, p.33, uncaptioned but text refers to Brough ‘playing the Baron in La Vie’.

Sketch character: The Muddle-Puddle Porter

c.1895
Design by ‘A.B’ (?Alfred Bryan), whole-length standing, to front, wearing railway uniform, scratching head with right hand, left hand holding cap; untraced. Repr. as hand-coloured lithograph on sheet music for comic monologue; prints colls BM, London, 1922,0710.655; MEPL, London, 10126490; V&A, London, S.1103-2009 and S.3649-2013; and Spellman Coll. of Victorian Music Covers, U. of Reading, Box 3.

Sketch character: Policeman X24

From at least 1869, Brough was known for his comic appearances as Constable Robert Roberts or Policeman X24, a character of his own devising, regularly presented in charity and benefit performances.

1882
Pen and ink on card by Janet Whitman, inscr. ‘x.24’, three-quarter-length standing, to left, in costume with police helmet and truncheon, right arm extended, speech bubble ‘You move on!’; AG of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, Album [1972].603, where dated to 10 Mar. 1882. Exh. Uncle Lal, AG of Ballarat, Oct.–Nov. 2010.

publ. 1884
Caricature design by Alfred Bryan; see above, ‘In private character, Paintings, drawings, sculptures and prints, publ. 1884’, pose (c).

publ. 1891
Pen and ink drawing by Alfred Bryan, initialled, whole-length standing, half-profile to right, hands on hips, Dan Leno as second police constable standing on right; untraced. Repr. Entr’Acte, 14 Feb. 1891, p.8, captioned ‘Fancy-Dress Ball / Policeman Lionel Brough to Comrade – Are you on duty in “Elijah”? / Comrade Dan Leno – No, I’ve never tried Oratorio’. This is probably the 'original caricature' by Bryan exh. Victorian Era Exhibition 1897 (567) lent by the sitter.

Exh. 1897
Caricature design by Alfred Bryan; no details; exh. Victorian Era Exhibition 1897 (567 ‘as Policeman X24’) lent by the sitter

Unidentified part or play

?1883
Ink and watercolour drawing by Janet Whitman, monogrammed, in costume as sailor (?Jack Tar), whole-length, to front, arms folded, dancing hornpipe; AG of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, Album [1972].603, where titled ‘Jack Shivermetimbers’ and dated to 10 Mar. 1883. Exh. Uncle Lal, AG of Ballarat, Oct.–Nov. 2010.

c.1884
Two black and red ink drawings by Janet Whitman, signed lower right; AG of Ballarat, Ballarat, VIC, Australia, Album [1972].603, indexed as ‘Corydon’:
(a) inscr. upper right ‘“I am Corydon / a shepherd of these parts”’, whole-length dancing, rear view, wearing sheepskin cloak, flower garland on head, straw hat on ribbon, black stockings and 17th-century shoes.
(b) inscr. on reverse ‘To Uncle Lionel with love / from Niece Janet / Feb.1884’, in costume as Restoration gentleman, whole-length standing, to front, legs apart, right hand holding beaker, wearing tricorne hat, full black wig, richly patterned cloak, stockings and shoes as in (a).

The production, role and quotation are so far unidentified, but seem to indicate a burlesque in which the character appears doubled, in disguise as the Arcadian shepherd Corydon and as a bewigged Restoration nobleman. Research by Peter Freund does not confirm that the artist was Brough’s niece in a genealogical sense.

1880s
Caricature by William Giles Baxter; no details; untraced. Repr. in series of 12 printed cards publ. Alfred Gray; Harvard Theatre Coll., Houghton L., Harvard U., 775085793, where series described as ‘comic images of various theatrical personalities in character’, including Henry Irving. Baxter, known for the comic character Ally Sloper, died in 1888.

Photographs

c.1865–6
Photograph by William Keith, Liverpool, as unidentified character, whole-length seated, to right, wearing tailcoat and white tie, holding out sheet of paper, Edward Saker standing to left, Lydia Cowell standing to right; V&A, London, S.149:303-2007, inscr. ‘Edward Saker / Lionel Brough / Lydia Cowell / Keith Liverpool’.

mid- to late 1860s
Photograph by unidentified photographer, whole-length standing, profile to right, wearing police constable’s helmet and uniform, collar with number ‘R 48’, left forefinger pointing right, right arm around ?parcel; NPG Ax36252, pasted on same page as a handwritten letter from Brough.

This would appear to show Brough in his celebrated solo role as Policeman X.24, but the costume bears a different ID number, suggesting perhaps a dramatic role in a production that antedated the appearance of Brough’s solo comic turn, which began in 1869.

?1870s
Cabinet card by W. & A.H. Fry, Brighton, whole-length standing, in costume as Italian shepherd, left hand to head in puzzled gesture, right hand holding tyrolean hat, bagpipes on rock to right, coastal scene backdrop; Harvard Theatre Coll., Houghton L., Harvard U., ITCS 1.3701. Possibly from a British production of the burlesque comedy Le Pifferaro, premiered in Paris Dec. 1863.

undated
Photograph by Elliott & Fry, whole-length, in pantomime costume with three other actors, possibly including Eleanor Bufton and Lydia Thompson; V&A, London, S.141:816-2007.

Carte-de-visite by Stabler, ?Sunderland, whole-length, profile to left, seated in dining chair, wearing knee-breeches, waistcoat and scarves, with curly wig, holding and pointing to object in right hand; V&A, London, S.134:58-2007.

Cartes-de-visite by London Stereoscopic & Photographic Co., different costumes but same background, long wig and droopy moustache, two known poses:
(a) whole-length standing, to front, left hand on hip, right elbow resting on plinth, wearing parti-coloured jerkin, doublet and hose; V&A, London, S.134:55-2007.
(b) whole-length standing, to front, wearing short dark-coloured smock, gloves, tights and button boots, left arm holding three black plumes; V&A, London, S.134:50-2007.


Footnotesback to top


1) Garrick Club Notes.


Dr Jan Marsh