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Mid-Georgian Portraits Catalogue

Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis (1738-1805), General and diplomat

1742
Painting by an unknown artist, whole length seated, as a boy, with his brother Henry (1740-61). Audley End.

1761
Painting by Joshua Reynolds, three-quarter length seated in uniform, as Lord Brome. Port Eliot (D. Mannings, Sir Joshua Reynolds, I, 2000, no.422). Engraved C. Knight (half length) 1780.

before 1776
by H. D. Hamilton, half-length oval, assumed by Strickland (Wal. Soc., II, 1913, p 104) to have been a pastel. Engraved F. Bartolozzi 1781 (lettered Earl Cornwallis, Lieutenant General); D. Berger 1787 (German title); anon. 1781 as Admiral Kempenfelt; A. Rosenthal. The same head was used for a half-length oval plate by W. Grainger 1791, lettered as from a drawing by W. H. Brown (for The Senator).

From 1776 to 1781 Cornwallis was in America, save a brief visit to England in 1778-79; he was then in England 1782 to 1786.

1782
Gouache by Daniel Gardner, oval, inscribed and dated, whole-length standing in uniform as lieutenant general, wearing hat. Christie’s, 6 June 2002, lot 14. Engraved J. Jones 1793 (rectangular); F. Haward 1784 (half-length oval, a later state altered to Gen. Burgoyne by F. Bartolozzi; see G. C. Williamson, Daniel Gardner, 1921, pp 20, 61).

c.1782
Gouache by Daniel Gardner, three-quarter length standing in uniform of lieutenant general with pink sash, right hand on hip, wearing hat. Christie’s, 28 November 2000, lot 23, from the Berger collection, Denver (illus. Berger Collection, Denver, 1998, p 204). Exhibited Gardner, Kendal, 1962 (5) as Maj. Leggatt, framed as an oval.

Gouache by Daniel Gardner, whole length standing in uniform as lieutenant general, hat in hand. Giffords Hall, Suffolk, in 1967. Anon. half-length oval engraving.

1783
Painting by Thomas Gainsborough, see NPG 281.

Cornwallis was in India from 1786 to 1793

1787
Miniature by John Smart, see under NPG 4316.

1792-94
Miniatures by John Smart, see NPG 4316.

1792
Painting by Robert Home, whole length in uniform with Garter insignia, the treaty with Tipu Sultan of March 1792 lying on the table. Formerly in the Banqueting House, Madras (M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 302), commissioned by the inhabitants of Madras in May 1792.

Medals by C. H. Küchler (L. Brown, A Catalogue of British Historical Medals 1760-1960: The Accession of George III to the Death of William IV, 1980, no.363) and W. Mainwaring (L. Brown, A Catalogue of British Historical Medals 1760-1960: The Accession of George III to the Death of William IV, 1980, no.373; D. Foskett, John Smart, 1964, fig.72).

c.1792-93
Paintings by Arthur William Devis, whole lengths, painted following Cornwallis’s return to Madras in March 1792 after the Third Mysore War.
a) in military uniform with Garter insignia, right hand on hip, standing in a tent with British and Indian soldiers in the mid-distance. Formerly in Government House, Calcutta, commissioned by the inhabitants of Calcutta July 1792 (photograph in NPG archive presented by Secretary of State for India 1887). Engraved H. Hudson, Calcutta, 1794 (illus. M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 259).
b) in military uniform with Garter insignia, right hand on hip, two palm trees in the left mid-distance. India Office, British Library. Painted for William Larkins, probably the portrait Devis exhibited RA 1796 (282).
c) wearing parliamentary robes over a dark grey coat with red cuffs, grey breeches and waistcoat. Spink 1983, descended through the Kennaway family. A half-length version sold Christie’s, 5 June 1925, lot 34 as Beechey.
d) a half-length engraving after A. W. Devis by F. Bartolozzi 1799, (dedicated to Lady Louisa Browne, the sitter’s daughter-in-law) does not exactly agree with any of the preceding, but closely resembles Heath’s engraving after Comerford, see 1809.

Cornwallis was in England 1794 to 1805, save for his Irish sojourn in 1798-1800. In 1805 he was sent to Calcutta but died that year at Ghazipore.

1793-98
Marble statue by John Bacon sr., completed by his son John Bacon jr., whole length all’antica, holding a sword and an olive branch. India Office, British Library (M. Archer, The India Office Collection of Paintings and Sculpture, 1986, no.121, pl.XXX), commissioned by the East India Company. Engraved L. Sailliar [Sahler] 1802 from a drawing by Bacon ‘taken from his original bust’ (see 1798).

A larger version of the monument, completed by John Bacon jr. in 1803, is in the Victoria Memorial Hall, Calcutta (illus. Apollo, CXX, 1984, p 53; B. Groseclose, British Sculpture and the Company Raj, Church Monuments and Public Statuary in Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay to 1858, 1995, p 106). Engraved G. Dawe 1803.

1794
Painting by J. S. Copley, three-quarter length, in military uniform with ribbon and badge of the Garter, a distant view of Seringapatam. Guildhall Art Gallery, London (59), presented by John Boydell 1795. Engraved B. Smith 1798; J. Hopwood 1806; W. Holl jr. 1832; S. Freeman 1833. Cornwallis received the Freedom of the City of London on his triumphal return to England in 1794; Boydell paid for this portrait on 5 June 1795, and by 18 June it was hanging in the Corporation’s Common Council Chamber. Copies by Samuel Lane in the Oriental Club, by T. W. Jones c.1839 in Dublin Castle and by Lancelot Speed 1890 at Clare College, Cambridge.

Painting on copper by Henry Walton, half length. Moyse’s Hall Museum, Bury St Edmunds (E. Bell, 'Life and Work of Henry Walton', Gainsborough's House Review, 1999, no.32, as 1792; illus. Walton, Norwich, 1963, pl.IX). Engraved J. Ogborne, 1 July 1795 (illus. Connoisseur, XXV, 1909, p 143). Farington saw the portrait on 9 January 1795; Walton lived close to Brome, the Cornwallis seat in Suffolk.

1795-1800
Monument, ‘a mark of gratitude of the East India Company, for the military services of the gallant veteran’, by Thomas Banks, whole length in parliamentary robes, left hand on hip; the pedestal includes a bas-relief of Cornwallis receiving the sons of Tipu Sultan. Fort St George Museum, Madras (C. F. Bell, Annals of Thomas Banks, 1938, pl.XXXIII; B. Groseclose, British Sculpture and the Company Raj, Church Monuments and Public Statuary in Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay to 1858, 1995, pp 64-65). Begun in 1795, busts exhibited RA 1796 (872, probably the model) and RA 1800 (1096, marble), see C. F. Bell, Annals of Thomas Banks, 1938, pp 135-36.

A profile medallion bust was engraved F. Eginton 1802 as after Thomas Banks.

1798
Marble bust by John Bacon sr. Squerryes. Exhibited Treasures from Kent Houses, Canterbury, 1984 (48) when identified as that exhibited RA 1798 (966), but this could equally have been the bust at Audley End or that in the Victoria Memorial Hall, Calcutta. Previously described as a replica from the India Office statue (see 1793-98 above) and exhibited Kenwood 1959 (7) as by Thomas Banks (see M. Whinney, Sculptures in Britain 1530-1830, 1964, p 181).

1799
Painting by William Beechey, whole length in Garter robes. Audley End. Exhibited RA 1799 (89). Engraved J. Ward 1799; E. P. Lightfoot.

1801
Painting by T. H. Cutbush, half length, wearing a blue coat. Government Art Collection, presented by the artist 1801 (R. J. B. Walker, A Check List of Portraits in the Department of the Environment Picture Collection, 1976, p 18).

c.1803
Painting by John Hoppner, half length, own white hair, wearing military coat with Garter badge. Untraced. Engraved H. Meyer 1804 (oval) ‘from the last painted Portrait of His Lordship’; J. Davis 1812; D. Edwin 1812; W. C. Edwards 1835.
On 1 August 1803 Cornwallis wrote that he had given Hoppner ‘a long sitting’ when he was last in London ‘which has, in my opinion, much improved the picture’ (Cornwallis, Corr., 1859, III, p 499). This may refer to a second portrait by Hoppner which uses the same body but shows the head turned more to the front and leaning slightly to the left. Untraced, engraved J. Wright 1820; W. Holl jr. 1858.
This second Hoppner type agrees substantially with a miniature by William Grimaldi in the Royal Collection, dated 1812 (R. J. B. Walker, The eighteenth and early nineteenth century Miniatures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1992, no.820), which differs only in showing the Garter ribbon over the coat and in slightly extending the figure downwards (without hands). Walker suggests this was a copy of ‘the large miniature’ by Grimaldi sent to the sitter’s son in India in 1810.

The many less important engravings of Cornwallis include a half-length profile with ermine [perhaps after a wax?] published 1781; a half length after T. Prattent 1786 and a profile bust by Simon de Koster engraved J. Stow 1801.

Posthumous
c.1805?
Medallion attributed to James Tassie (illus. J. P. Smith, James Tassie, 1995, p 65). Another(?) medallion, described as Wedgwood, exhibited Royal House of Guelph, New Gallery, London, 1891 (1569) lent J. L. Propert.

Wax by Catherine Andras. Christie’s, 23 May 1967, lot 5.

1806
Miniature by Richard Bull, exhibited RA 1806 (753).

1807-11
Monument by J. C. Rossi, whole-length figure in Garter robes, three Indian figures round the pedestal. St Paul’s Cathedral. A finished sketch exhibited RA 1810 (872), half-size models of the ancillary figures 1811 (927), and a model of the statue 1814 (764), three years after the date inscribed on the statue. Engraved S. Rawle 1819 (European Mag.).

1807-13
Monument by John Flaxman, medallion with Britannia and two grieving Indian figures. St John’s Church, Penang. Destroyed during Second World War (Wal. Soc., XXVIII, 1940, pl.XVIIA, p 89; B. Groseclose, British Sculpture and the Company Raj, Church Monuments and Public Statuary in Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay to 1858, 1995, p 63). Commissioned by the citizens of Penang [Prince of Wales Island]; the model was paid for in 1807. Exhibited RA 1812 (896). The original plaster is in University College, London.

before 1809
Miniature[?] by John Comerford, bust length; engraved J. Heath 1809 as from ‘an original painting by Commurford in possession of Sir J[onah] Barington’, see above c.1792-93 A. W. Devis.

1811
A statue by John Bacon jr. (B. Groseclose, British Sculpture and the Company Raj, Church Monuments and Public Statuary in Madras, Calcutta, and Bombay to 1858, 1995, p 133n20). A half-sized model ‘of a statue to be erected in Bombay’ exhibited RA 1811 (924).

Engraved gem by William Brown, exhibited RA 1811 (699).

1812-23
Memorial by John Flaxman, a profile head with a Brahmin and a Muslim on each side. Ghazipur, Uttar Pradesh (illus. Apollo, CXX, 1984, p 54).

1837
Medal by E. W. Wyon, exhibited RA 1837 (1140).

1867
Statue by W. G. Nicholl (listed by R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors, 1968 ed., p 272 as India Office, but untraced).

Cornwallis was portrayed in many history pictures, principally celebrating his victory over Tipu Sultan in the Third Mysore War (in preference to his defeat at Yorktown). The many interpretations of Cornwallis with the Sons of Tipu Sultan include (besides untraced pictures by James Northcote and Edward Bird, see M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 421) the following (listed alphabetical by artist):

Mather Brown 1792 (private collection, India; D. Evans, Mather Brown: an early American artist in England, 1982, no.245); copy in the Bowes Museum, Barnard Castle (illus. The Tiger and the Thistle, National Gallery of Scotland, 1999, p 48).

Mather Brown 1793 (Oriental Club; D. Evans, Mather Brown: an early American artist in England, 1982, no.237; M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 422 as c.1793); reduced version in the Victoria Memorial Hall, Calcutta (M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 423, pl.325), another sold Christie’s, 20 June 1969, lot 28.

George Carter 1792 (Victoria Memorial, Calcutta; M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 278).

A. W. Devis 1793-1805 (private collection; M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 263); a larger version in a second private collection (illus. M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 265). One of these exhibited RA 1802 (128).

Robert Home c.1793-94 (National Army Museum, 7611.86; illus. M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 309; The Raj, NPG, 1990-91, no.157); exhibited RA 1797 (244).

Henry Singleton 1793 (Christie’s, 13 July 1984, lot 107; M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 422); exhibited RA 1793 (93).

Robert Smirke (Yale Center for British Art, B1976.7.70).



This extended catalogue entry is from the out-of-print National Portrait Gallery collection catalogue: John Ingamells, National Portrait Gallery: Mid-Georgian Portraits 1760-1790, National Portrait Gallery, 2004, and is as published then. For the most up-to-date details on individual Collection works, we recommend reading the information provided in the Search the Collection results on this website in parallel with this text.