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Mid-Georgian Portraits Catalogue

Warren Hastings (1732-1818), Governor-General of India

Shortly after Hastings had returned home in 1784, George Thompson, his secretary in Calcutta, wrote to him 'both you and Mrs Hastings should set to Gainsborough. For God's sake do so, and if the Picture is a good one have some Mezzotinto's scraped from it. They will be 1000 times more valuable to your Friends, and creditable to you than the many bad Pictures which are now extant of you' (S. C. Grier, Letters of Warren Hastings to his Wife, 1905, pp 247-48).

1766-68
Painting by Joshua Reynolds, see NPG 4445.

In India
c.1772-76
Paintings by Tilly Kettle, see NPG 81.

1780-81
A profile bust-length portrait of Hastings appears in Reynolds’s Richard Barwell and his Son, formerly at Daylesford (D. Mannings, Sir Joshua Reynolds, I, 2000, no.129).

c.1782
Gouache by an unknown Mughal artist, whole length with an Indian attendant. India Office (British Library; illus. The Raj, NPG, 1990-91, no.134).

1783-87
Painting by Johann Zoffany, whole length with his second wife and her ayah with a distant view of Alipore, their country residence near Calcutta. Victoria Memorial Hall, Calcutta (illus. Zoffany 1997, no.99; M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 140 and pl.IV). Hastings married 1777 Marian Chapuset, Baroness Imhoff (1747-1837), as his second wife (there were no children); she left India in January 1784, but the picture was still awaited in 1787. A version belonged to C. P. Hastings in 1935 (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 3, no.9).

1784-85
Painting by A. W. Devis, whole length, a bust of Clive behind him. Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi (illus. M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 242). Commissioned for William Larkins, accountant-general in Bengal 1777-93, who thought 'every other part but the face is a mere daub' (S. C. Grier, Letters of Warren Hastings to his Wife, 1905, p 421); presented to the NPG by the Secretary of State for India, 1885, but returned to the India Office 1902. Engraved H. Hudson, Calcutta, 1794. A copy by Miss Hawkins 1885 is in Government House, Calcutta, and another by Sephton was in the Town Hall, Calcutta.

A similar but smaller portrait, a scroll on the table inscribed In memory and great friendship Mr Hastings has presented this painting to Beniram Pandit and Bissumber Pandit, 1st February 1785 (Hastings left for England on 7 February) is in a private collection, Benares (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 5, no.12). Devis’s account for his two whole-length portraits is printed in M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 242.

A reduced copy commissioned by Lord Dalhousie c.1856 was sold from Colstoun,Sotheby's, 22 May 1990, lot 253; a three-quarter length version from Harewood was sold Christie’s, 29 June 1951, lot 60 as Hudson, and a half length, originally belonging to Thomas Davies, Hastings’s secretary in Bengal, and exhibited in 1878, 1879 and 1882 as Zoffany, sold Sotheby’s, 15 July 1987, lot 70 (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 3, no.10).

1784
Painting by Johann Zoffany, half length. Leger in 1995, descended from Sir Elijah Impey. Exhibited British Paintings Watercolours & Drawings, Leger, 1995 (cat. p 68). Engraved R. Brittridge, Calcutta, August 1784. Copies in the East India Club, London, and, in gouache, by a painter of the ‘Company School’ in the Victoria Memorial Hall, Calcutta (illus. P. Vaughan ed., The Victoria Memorial Hall, Calcutta, 1997, p 108). Hastings was said to have given many sittings to Zoffany in January 1784 (K. Feiling, Warren Hastings, 1954, p 310) and Zoffany’s account to Hastings of 1785 included a ‘Three Qr Portrait of Mr Hastings’ and two copies, one already sent to Benares (M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 152). A preparatory chalk drawing is in a private collection (exhibited Hidden Treasures, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 1993, no.27 as by Humphry). A related anon. engraving after Zoffany, the body turned slightly to the right, is dated 1786 (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 18, no.5). The Flaxman medallion made for Wedgwood derived from this portrait, see c.1785-90 below.

Painting by J. T. Seton, three-quarter length seated. Untraced. Engraced J. Jones 1785 (illus. M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 115). R. Dalton 1797. A whole-length version, including a globe behind the sitter, painted in Calcutta for Sir Thomas Metcalfe, was acquired by the Victoria Memorial Hall, Calcutta, 1934. Another, painted in Bengal for Sir John D'Oyly, reduced to a three length in 1934 when on the London art market, presumably that sold Sotheby's, 12 June 2003, lot 13. A miniature copy of the head attributed to John Smart (illus. Apollo, XI, 1930, p 403), attributed to Diana Hill by Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 15, no.6 (where said to have been sold Sotheby’s, 1 May 1930).

Hastings returned to England in 1784 and in 1788 his trial began in London, the prosecution led by Edmund Burke.

c.1785-90
Wedgwood medallion, modelled by John Flaxman evidently from the Zoffany half length; previously attributed to Charles Peart (illus. R. Reilly and G. Savage, Wedgwood the Portrait Medallions, 1973, p 186; R. Reilly, Wedgwood Jasper, 1994, p 339).

1786
Pastel by Thomas Lawrence, see NPG 3823.

1787
Miniature by Richard Cosway, see NPG 6286.

1789
Miniature on ivory by Ozias Humphry, three-quarter length seated, unfinished. Victoria and Albert Museum (996.1897; illus. M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 202). Engraved (as a finished picture) E. Finden 1836. Described in 1981 in error as after John Hoppner (due, presumably, to the similarity with the portrait now attributed to Abbott and formerly to Hoppner, see c.1796-97 below). Hastings was sitting to Humphry on 4 and 5 July 1789 (M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 203).

c.1789
Miniature on ivory by Ozias Humphry, half length. F. H. Turner 1950 (illus. G. C. Williamson, Ozias Humphry, 1918, f.p.118). Engraved W. Greatbach 1841. The head closely resembles that of the 1789 miniature; a similar miniature (once attributed to Grimaldi) said to have been given by Hastings to Anna Maria Scott on her marriage to John Reade in 1796, belonged to E. B. Reade in 1950 (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 14, nos.2 and 3).

1790
Bust by Thomas Banks, see NPG 209.

Miniature attributed to Robert Bowyer. The Duke of Buccleuch. Hastings gave several sittings to Bowyer in 1790 (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p.16, no.7; H. A. Kennedy, Early English Portrait Miniatures in the Collection of the Duke of Buccleuch, 1917, pl.LXIV as unknown).

1791
Enamel on Wedgwood biscuit earthenware by George Stubbs, whole length on his Arabian mare. Private collection (illus. Stubbs, Tate Gallery, 1984, no.130). Painted for Hastings’s secretary at Calcutta, George Nesbitt Thompson, who described it as a poor likeness (S. C. Grier, Letters of Warren Hastings to his Wife, 1905, p 438n1). A similar, slightly smaller, enamel is in the Victoria Memorial Hall, Calcutta (Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 6, no.15) and a replica, oil on panel, is at Dalmeny (illus. Apollo, CXIX, 1984, p 417). A watercolour of the head alone, attributed to Stubbs, illus. Stubbs, Hall & Knight, NY, 2000, p 61; engraved G. T. Stubbs 1795. An inscribed watercolour copy by G. T. Stubbs dated 1796, sold Robinson & Fisher, 21 February 1935, lot 74 as A Huntsman.

In 1787 Stubbs had been painting the Arab horse (K. Feiling, Warren Hastings, 1954, p 348), presumably Hastings’ Arabian Horse engraved by G. T. Stubbs in 1798 (exhibited Hastings, Westminster School, 1932, no.42).

1793
Drawing by Richard Corbould, engraved B. Crosby 1793; B. Granger 1796.

1795
Painting by George Romney, whole length. India Office, lent to the Foreign & Commonwealth Office (R. J. B. Walker, A Check List of Portraits in the Department of the Environment Picture Collection, 1976, p 32; M. Archer, The India Office Collection of Paintings and Sculpture, 1986, no.56, pl.IX). Painted for William Larkins, see 1784-85 above.

c.1796-97
Painting attributed to L. F. Abbott, three-quarter length seated. New South Wales Art Gallery, Sydney (illus. Cat. of British Paintings, [1987], p 126, as Masquerier), from the collection of Warren Hastings Anderson, the sitter’s godson. Previously attributed to Masquerier and Hoppner (Burlington Magazine, III, 1903, f.p.129), but the head very closely resembles the 1795 Abbott pattern.

1796
Painting by L. F. Abbott, see NPG 1845.

Bust by Thomas Banks, see under NPG 209.

1797
Painting attributed to L. F. Abbott, half length. Engraved by W. Bromley 1797 (with two supporting Indian figures drawn by Thomas Stothard). Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, pp 8-9, nos. 24, 25, recorded two versions of the original painting, variously attributed to Devis, Hoppner, Stuart and Abbott; one is now in the Palace of Westminster (from the collection of Lord Teignmouth), the other, from Stratton Park (Lord Northbrook), appears to have been the portrait with blue coat and red waistcoat with the Vose Galleries, Boston, Mass., in 1977. A third version, wearing a brown coat and looking to the left, with a glimpse of a red chair to the right, with Sotheby’s in 1993, descended from James Peter Auriol (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 9, no.26, as c.1796; illus. A. M. Davies, Warren Hastings, 1935, f.p.418).

Miniatures by W. H. Craft (Sotheby’s, 28 February 1972, lot 85) and William Bone (Sotheby’s, 25 November 1974, lot 13) closely resemble the engraved portrait.

1800
Bust by J. C. Rossi, ‘rising out of the sacred Flower of the Lotus’ in artificial stone on a pedestal dedicated ‘to the genii of India ... particularly the Immortal Hastings’ set in an imitation Hindu temple designed by Thomas Daniell at Melchet Park, near Romsey, Hampshire, for John Osborne. Destroyed c.1850. Engraved J. Sewell 1803 (European Mag., XLII, 1802, II, pp 448-49; C. Lawson, Private Life of Warren Hastings, 1896, pp 248-49). A pencil drawing by William Daniell relates to this bust (P. Rohatgi, Portraits in the India Office Library, 1983, p 98).

1801
Painting by Robert Foulton half length, engraved W. Nutter (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 18, no.4).

1804
Painting by W. M. Craig, half length. Christie’s, 26 June 1925, lot 5, from the collections of the Earl of Morton and Lord Churston. Exhibited RA 1804 (614). Hastings recorded seven sittings to Craig in 1804 (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 22, no.3).

1805-06
Waxes by Peter Rouw, see NPG 5065.

1806
Painting by William Beechey half-length seated, a quill in his right hand. Phillips, 3 June 1997, lot 50, from the collection of the Duke of Gloucester. Hastings sat to Beechey in April 1806 ‘for a portrait he was giving to the Duke of Gloucester’ (K. Feiling, Warren Hastings, 1954, p 387); the Duke acknowledged ‘a remarkably fine painting as well as extremely like’ (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 12, no.34).

Painting by J. J. Masquerier, whole-length seated. Oriental Club, London, presented by Sir Charles Forbes 1829. Exhibited RA 1809 (231). Engraved S. Freeman 1815 and Holl (illus. A. F. Baillie, The Oriental Club & Hanover Square, 1901, p 232). A sketch was in the Masquerier sale, Christie’s, 19 January 1877, lot 27.

1811
Painting by Thomas Lawrence, see NPG 390.

1813-14
Painting by William Beechey, half length, holding an envelope addressed to Daylesford. Phillips, 19 May 1981, lot 40. Engraved W. Skelton 1817 from the original in the collection of William Leake. According to Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 13, no.37, the portrait was finished at Daylesford on 10 June 1814. A variant, without papers on the desk or in his hand, inscribed verso: painted for Sir Henry Halford Bart. 1813/by Sr Wm Beechey RA, sold Sotheby’s, 12 March 1969, lot 59a.

1815
Portrait by W. M. Bennett, exhibited RA 1815 (127).

Posthumous
1821
Marble bust by Samuel Manning. Westminster Abbey. Exhibited RA 1821 (1106, bust in marble of the late Right Hon. Warren Hastings. Part of a monument to be erected in Westminster Abbey). Miss M. Hastings Rainford, a direct descendant, had a ‘black’ bust believed to be a model for this monument (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 21, no.9). The monument incorporating Manning’s bust was designed by John Bacon jr. (dated 1818 by R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors, 1968 ed., p 31). A similar bust with different drapery, his right shoulder bare, sold Christie’s, 15 December 1982, lot 334 (unattributed and unidentified). It was presumably a cast of Manning’s bust which was exhibited Crystal Palace (Samuel Phillips, The Portrait Gallery of the Crystal Palace, 1854, no.451 as by Bacon).

1823
Marble statue by John Flaxman. India Office, lent to the Foreign & Commonwealth Office (R. J. B. Walker, A Check List of Portraits in the Department of the Environment Picture Collection, 1976, p 32; illus. M. Archer. The India Office Collection of Paintings and Sculpture, 1986, no.133).

1830
Marble statue by Richard Westmacott jr. Victoria Memorial Hall, Calcutta (illus. Apollo, CXX, 1984, p 53); the head exhibited RA 1828 (1213).

1867
Statue by Theodore Phyffers. India Office, London (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 21, no.13).

Undated
Unattributed drawing, half-length seated, sold Christie’s, 1 March 1989, lot 18.

Silhouette by John Field, sold Sotheby’s, 24 October 1977, lot 42.

Paste medallion attributed to James Tassie was with Spink in 1986. A paste cameo by William Tassie belonged to Capt. D. M. Anderson in 1935 (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 21, no.10).

Painting by J. T. Seton, whole-length seated. Victoria Memorial Hall, Calcutta. Painted for Sir Thomas Metcalfe. Engraved J. Jones April 1785, and R. Dalton 1797 (illus. M. Archer, India and British Portraiture 1770-1825, 1979, p 115). A half-length version painted for Sir John D’Oyly was on the London art market in 1932 (Sir Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 3. no.6). A miniature copy of the head attributed to John Smart (illus. Apollo, XI, 1930, p 403), attributed to Diana Hill by Arthur Knapp, A Catalogue of the known Portraits of Warren Hastings, 1951, p 15, no.6 (where said to have been sold Sotheby’s, 1 May 1930).



This extended catalogue entry is from the out-of-print National Portrait Gallery collection catalogue: John Ingamells, National Portrait Gallery: Mid-Georgian Portraits 1760-1790, National Portrait Gallery, 2004, and is as published then. For the most up-to-date details on individual Collection works, we recommend reading the information provided in the Search the Collection results on this website in parallel with this text.