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Later Victorian Portraits Catalogue

Charles Samuel Keene (1823-1891), Illustrator and etcher

Undated self-portraits
By other artists
Undated portraits
Posthumous portraits

Self-portraitsback to top

Pen and brown ink over black chalk drawing, 241 x 279mm, head only, full-face, wearing a hat; J. Paul Getty M., Malibu, CA, T.2009.171.

Sketchbook containing self-portrait studies, 110 x 185mm; V&A, London, E2376-1932, pp.1, 3, 35, 36, 38, 55, 170, 176, 178, 184, 185, 231, 255 (possibly others).

Oil on board, whole-length, standing in short coat and trousers, palette in hand, by easel, behind him a chair and violin hanging on the wall; coll. Derek Hudson. Ref. Bonhams, 14 Mar. 1963 (84, not ill.); and Broadbent & Houfe 1991, no.23 (not ill.).

after 1860
‘There exists a serious drawing by Keene of himself in uniform’ (Emmanuel 1939, p.15); untraced.[1]

Brush and ink over pencil drawing, whole-length, seated to left, leaning forwards, back view; NG Victoria, Melbourne, 2519A-4. Drawing for Infallible (no further details).

Pen and ink and wash over pencil drawing, whole-length, standing, profile to right; NG Victoria, Melbourne, 2519B-4. Drawing for Infallible (no further details).

Pen and brown ink and wash drawing on grey paper, four self-studies on one sheet:
(a) head-and-shoulders, back view;
(b) profile to right;
(c) whole-length, seated on edge of chair, profile to right, sketching; repr (in reverse) Punch, 12 Aug. 1865, p.56 (‘A Complaint’);
(d) half-length, rear view, seated.
Ashmolean M., Oxford, WA1950.178.303. Repr. Lindsay 1934, pl.3; and Hudson 1947, pl.1.

Pen and ink and wash drawing, whole-length to right, profile to right, seated on stool in front of easel holding palette and brushes; NG Victoria, Melbourne, 2539-4.

publ. 1866
Self-caricature drawing, seated at easel, with picture dealer; untraced. Repr. Punch, 20 Jan., 1866, p.23 (captioned ‘You don’t mean to say you want me to sign it…’ etc.).[2]

publ. 1867
Self-caricature drawing, profile to left, at extreme right; untraced. Repr. Punch, 29 June 1867, p.269 (as decorative heading for Index of first half-yearly volume).

Self-caricature drawing, whole-length to left, as a sailor; untraced. Repr. Punch, 10 July 1869, p.1 (as decorative heading for vol.57).

Self-caricature drawing, Mr Punch toasting the three chief cartoonists seen from behind, Keene on extreme left; untraced. Repr. Punch, 14 July 1877, p.1 (as decorative heading for vol.73).

Pen and ink drawing, whole-length, back view, seated on a stool in front of the fire playing guitar and smoking; untraced. Repr. Layard 1892, p.118 (captioned ‘sketch of himself in lieu of a signature to a letter [to Mr. Edwards, 23 Nov. 1878]’); and AJ, 1892, p.223.

Self-caricature drawing, three-quarter-length, seated, facing fireplace at left; untraced. Repr. Punch, 18 June 1881, p.281 (captioned ‘Harmony’).

Self-caricature drawing, three-quarter-length to left, as a fisherman; untraced. Repr. Punch, 10 Sept. 1881, p.109 (captioned ‘Walton’s Complete Bungler’).

Pen and brown ink and brown wash drawing, The Man that Hath not Music, three-quarter-length to right, standing holding bagpipes under right arm, gazing down at man on bench; coll. Michael Broadbent; formerly Christie’s, 18 June 1980 (173). Repr. as photogravure Layard 1892, facing p.124 (captioned ‘Keene’s portrait of himself in ‘Punch’ picture’); and Houfe 1995, p.59.

Pencil drawing on paper, whole-length, seated in chair, back view, in military (Artists’ Rifles) uniform; Tate, N04371.

Pencil drawing; coll. Sir Kenneth Clark. Exh. Drawings by Charles Keene, Arts Council, 1952 (59c, not ill.).

Pencil drawing on paper, whole-length, back view, possibly in uniform; Tate, N04370.

Pen and ink drawing; see NPG 2817.

Pencil drawing on paper, whole-length, profile to left, seated; Tate, T02088.

Pen and brown ink sketch on back of brown envelope, three-quarter-length, seated, profil perdu to left; NG Victoria, Melbourne, 987.4-5.

Pen and brown ink sketch, whole-length, full-face, hands masking face (another sketch of head and shoulders at left); NG Victoria, Melbourne, 2782-4. Study for One way of Looking at It (no further details).

Pencil, pen and brown ink sketch, whole-length head slightly to left in top hat; NG Victoria, Melbourne, 2777-4. Study for Compliments of the Season (no further details).

publ. 1888
Self-caricature drawing, whole-length, seated, profile to left, in train carriage; untraced. Repr. Punch, 11 Feb. 1888, p.70 (captioned ‘Number one’).

Pen and brown ink sketch, whole-length, full-face, seated, wearing overcoat, hat and holding umbrella; NG Victoria, Melbourne, K2804-4. Study for In Waiting (no further details).

Pen and brown ink caricature drawing, whole-length, profile to right, seated on stool reading newspaper; untraced. Repr. AJ, 1892, p.224; and Layard 1892, p.356 (captioned ‘Portrait of himself, in lieu of a letter to Mr Mills, expressing his horror at news contained in an accompanying cutting dealing with a failure of one of his investments’).

Pen and ink study sketch, whole-length, full-face, seated on stool, left hand extended palm upwards, holding top hat in right hand; coll. L. Lindsay, 1934. Repr. Lindsay 1934, fig.54. This pose used in caricature Compliments of the Season (not a self-portrait), Punch, 9 Jan. 1886.

publ. 1897
Pen and ink sketches:
(a) whole-length, standing to right, head turned to viewer, sketchbook open and resting against breast, in shirtsleeves and waistcoat, trousers tucked into gaiters; untraced. Repr. Pennell 1897, p.11.
(b) whole-length, standing slightly to right, wearing hat and large coat/smock; untraced. Repr. Pennell 1897, p.13.
(c) whole-length, standing with sketchbook, slightly to left; untraced. Repr. Pennell 1897, p.17.
(d) whole-length, seated, hands clasped on lap; untraced. Repr. Pennell 1897, p.20.
(e) whole-length, standing, left arm raised (to easel?); untraced. Repr. Pennell 1897, p.24.
(f) whole-length, seated, right hand on knee, head to viewer (mirror); untraced. Repr. Pennell 1897, p.28.
(g) whole-length, standing in overcoat, head lowered to left, umbrella at right; untraced. Repr. Pennell 1897, p.31.
(h) whole-length, full-face, standing with sketchbook, right leg flexed; untraced. Repr. Pennell 1897, p.34.
(i) whole-length, full-face, seated, in overcoat, with umbrella and hat; untraced. Repr. Pennell 1897, p.36.

Undated self-portraitsback to top

Oil on board, whole-length to front, with red cap, seated at easel in studio; Tate, N03644. Exh. RA 1922 (ex-cat.); Charles Keene: ‘The Artists’ Artist’ 1823–1891, Christie’s, London, 1991 (24); repr. Hudson 1947, frontispiece; Broadbent & Houfe 1991, p.9.
This is the prime portrait for Keene.

Pen and ink drawing on paper, with another artist, seated at left, head lowered to left, smoking pipe, sketching; priv. coll. Repr. Houfe 1995, p.18.

Pen and brown ink drawing on paper, inscr. on verso ‘A foggy day Painter cleaning his skylight!’, whole-length, profile to left, standing on crate under skylight; BM, London, 1983,1001.9. Repr. Houfe 1995, p.23 (who dates it c.1862).

Drawing on paper, whole-length, standing, left leg flexed, seen from behind, wearing cap; Tate, N03022.

Pencil drawing on paper, three-quarter-length, standing to right, holding rifle; Tate, N03611.

Pen and ink drawing, whole-length, back view, standing in front of music stand in garden, playing bagpipes; untraced. Wood-engr. by J. Swain repr. Spielmann 1895a, p.485 (captioned ‘Charles Keene torturing the Bagpipes’).

Chalk drawing, whole-length, profile to left, seated, playing the bagpipes; untraced; Sotheby’s, Olympia, 10 Mar. 2004 (88, ill.).

Pen and ink drawing, whole-length, standing to right, sketching; untraced; Sotheby’s, Olympia, 10 Mar. 2004 (91, ill.).

Pencil drawing on envelope; untraced; Christie’s, 18 June 1980 (167, not ill.).

Self-portraits in sketchbooks; untraced; Christie’s, 21 July 1981 (71, 72, not ill.).

Pen and ink drawing, 155 x 60 mm; untraced; Phillips, 29 June 1999 (93, not ill.).

Pen and ink drawing, standing, three-quarters to left, wearing hat and smoking, right hand in pocket, carrying coal bucket; coll. Chris Beetles, St James Ltd. Repr. Houfe 1995, p.104 (who dates it c.1870s).

Pen and brown ink drawing; coll. Sir Kenneth Clark. Exh. Drawings by Charles Keene, Arts Council, 1952 (21a, not ill.).

Two pen and brown ink sketches, related poses, whole-length, wearing round hat and carrying large bundle under one arm; NG Victoria, Melbourne, 2543A-4 and 2543B-4.

Pencil sketch, whole-length to right, right hand raised to face, expression of surprise; NG Victoria, Melbourne, 966.1-5.

Pencil study on brown envelope, whole-length, standing, piece of paper in left hand, wearing top hat; NG Victoria, Melbourne, 2747-4. Study for The Scot Abroad (no further details).

Pencil sketch, whole-length, seated, right hand raised to face, looking to right; NG Victoria, Melbourne, 2544B-4.

Pencil sketch, whole-length, standing slightly to right, left hand raised; NG Victoria, Melbourne, 2465-4.

Self-portrait; untraced. Exh. RSPP 8th Annual Exhibition, 1898 (158).

Drawing, with J.H.S. Mann, Punch subject (date and medium unstated); untraced; exh. Victorian Era Exhibition, Earls Court, London, 1897 (172, coll. Henry Keene).

Self-portrait drawing for Punch cartoon Classical; untraced; exh. Victorian Era Exhibition, Earls Court, London, 1897 (173, coll. Charles Keene).

Sketches, loose or tipped in, in extra-illustrated copy of Layard 1892, including self-portrait seated smoking; untraced; Christie’s, 18 June 1980 (164, not ill.)

Possible self-portrait
Pen and ink drawing, with portraits of Edwin Edwards and Horace Harral; Tate, N04372.

By other artistsback to top

Pencil drawing by Samuel Read, ‘Charles Keene, Aged 9.’, half-length, profile to left in oval; untraced. Repr. Layard 1892, p.7.

exh. 1857
Portrait by Alfred B. Clay; untraced. Exh. RA 1857 (454).

Pen and ink drawings by Henry Stacy Marks, on board fishing boat ‘the “William and Mary of Gravesend”’:
(a) dated ‘Augt. 6’, whole-length, profile to left, seated to left, on deck smoking pipe; untraced. Repr. Layard 1892, facing p.78.
(b) inscr. ‘Cabin. “William & Mary” Gravesend’, whole-length, full-face, eyes closed, asleep in bunk; untraced. Repr. Layard 1892, facing p.78.
(c) seated on deck sketching, head lowered; untraced. Repr. Marks 1894, vol.1, p.111 (captioned ‘At the mouth of the Thames with Charles Keene’).

Pen and sepia ink drawing by John Dawson Watson, signed and dated 1861, whole-length, seated to right, leaning against wall, foot on chair; coll. David Routledge; offered to NPG (offer no.100/1991), declined. Repr. Houfe 1995, p.84.

publ. 1862
Caricature by ‘MM’ (?Matt Morgan) for Trying for Perkins, whole-length, profile to right, in uniform of Artists’ Rifles; untraced. Wood-engr. repr. Fun, 15 Feb. 1862, p.216.

Caricature by ‘MM’ (?Matt Morgan) for Volunteers! Look Out! Or it will come to this, whole-length, profile to right, standing to attention with rifle, third figure from left; untraced. Wood-engr. repr. Fun, 1 Mar. 1862, p.236.

Pen and ink sketch by George du Maurier, John Leech’s Funeral. souvenir, seated second from right, with four other whole-length figures; untraced; coll. E.H. Coles, 1948. Repr. Whiteley 1948, p.48. Leech’s funeral took place at Kensal Green on 4 Nov. 1864.
See also Du Maurier, Millais.

Invitation card designed by Frederick Walker, inscr. ‘Arthur J. Lewis at home, Moray Lodge, Campden Hill, Kensington’, head-and-shoulders to left, fourth from right (tallest figure in group); untraced. Repr. Marks 1896, p.52.

Pencil drawing by Alfred William Cooper; see NPG 2771.

Caricature drawing by George Du Maurier, Mr Titwillow in Paris, whole-length, profile to left, standing on extreme right; untraced. Repr. Punch, 5 Oct. 1867, p.142.

Pen and ink drawing by John Dawson Watson, half-length, profile to left, riding horse, middle in group of three; Birket Foster Sketchbook, priv. coll., f.13.

Pen and ink drawing by Frederick Walker, whole-length to right, having tea and smoking a pipe; Birket Foster Sketchbook, priv. coll., f.29.

Sketch by Hubert von Herkomer, Smoking Concert by members of the ‘Wandering Minstrels’, inscr. ‘H.H.’, whole-length to left, sitting in a chair with leg crossed; untraced. Wood-engr. ref. photo in NPG TB (Artists & Connoisseurs 1850–1900).
See also Calderon, Leighton, Marks, Walker.

Painting by John Dawson Watson, signed with initials and dated ‘1870’, half-length to right, profile, head lowered; untraced. Ref. Emmanuel 1939, pp.14–15; repr. Spielmann 1895a, p.478 (as halftone).

Design by George Du Maurier for the Punch dinner invitation card, head with pipe and butterfly wings, top centre, with other Punch colleagues; coll. S. Houfe. Exh. Charles Keene: ‘The Artists’ Artist’ 1823–1891, Christie’s, London, 1991 (122, not ill.); repr. Spielmann 1895a, pp.69, 128; Ormond 1969, fig.59; McMaster 2008, p.67, fig.8; and McMaster 2009, p.29, fig.15.
See also Du Maurier, Tenniel.

Etching by Felix Bracquemond, three-quarter-length, profile to right, seated at drawing table, bagpipes hanging on wall; BM, London, 1923,0714.230; counterproof, image reversed, BM, London, 1923,0714.195. Repr. Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 2nd ser., vol.30, 1884, p.157.

publ. 1873
Caricature drawing by George Du Maurier, Scenes of Club Life. Election of an Honorary Member., whole-length, profile to left, standing at extreme right, smoking pipe; untraced. Repr. Punch 1873 (no details known); Ormond 1969, p.195.

Pen and ink sketch by Harry Furniss on Punch dinner invitation card, 3 Jan. 1881, two heads at lower left; untraced. Repr. Furniss 1901, p.218.

Oil on canvas by Sir George Reid, half-length to right, with small clay pipe, in feigned oval; Aberdeen AG, ABDAG003994. Engr. by C. Carter repr. Review of Reviews 1892, p.553. See MEPL, London, 10070612.

Caricature drawing by ?George Du Maurier, profile to left, hand on knees, seated at extreme right; untraced. Repr. Punch, 18 Feb. 1888, p.78 (captioned ‘What our Artist has to put up with’).[3]

Watercolour drawing by Walton Corbould; see NPG 1337. May be posthumous.

c.1880s–early 1890s
Pen and ink drawings by Harry Furniss; see NPG 3476 and NPG 3477.

Pen and ink drawing by (Edward) Linley Sambourne for The Mahogany Tree, signed and dated June 1891, framed half-length portrait of Keene on easel at right, with Punch staff around dinner table; untraced, formerly coll. Sir William Agnew. Engr. by Swain repr. Punch, 18 July 1891 (jubilee issue), frontispiece; Spielmann 1895a, frontispiece and p.536; and Ormond 2010, pp.230–31, fig.95; exh. Punch 150 Anniversary Exhibition, RFH, London, 1991 (handlist no.30, not ill.).[4]
See also Agnew, Du Maurier, Furniss, Sambourne, Tenniel.

Undated portraitsback to top

Pen and ink drawing by George Du Maurier, whole-length, slightly to left, walking with James McNeill Whistler and George Du Maurier; untraced. Ref. Gallatin 1918, pp.40–41, no.64 (repr. facing p.44, coll. Howard Mansfield, New York).

Blue chalk caricature drawing with touches of red on white paper by Eyre Crowe, whole-length, with a dachshund at his feet; Ashmolean M., Oxford, WA1963.130.

Brush and grey wash caricature drawing heightened with white on blue paper by Alfred Bryan, whole-length, standing, profile to left, smoking a pipe; BM, London, 1939,0810.3.

Pen and ink drawing by George Du Maurier, two self-portrait sketches with Keene; untraced; Bonhams, The Allan Cuthbertson Coll., 3 Oct. 2000 (780).

Doubtful portrait
Pencil drawing by James McNeill Whistler, whole-length to right, seated, sketching with pad on left knee; NG Victoria, Melbourne, 3019-4. Repr. Apollo, Dec. 1983, p.462; not included in MacDonald 1995.

Posthumous portraitsback to top

Bronze memorial relief by Sir George Frampton, bust, three-quarters to left, on rectangular plaque with two mourners at top corners, lettered at lower edge; coll. Shepherd’s Bush Library, Hammersmith and Fulham Council. Exh. RA 1897 (2074).
Another bronze copy; Tate, N01954. Plaster cast; Tate, N05998. Repr. MA, 1897, p.342. The portrait was based on the photograph by Elliot & Fry, see below, ‘c.1873?’. A photograph by L. Lowe, showing George Frampton in his studio with the Keene relief on an easel, repr. The Year’s Art 1897, facing p.24; and Rosenblum, Stevens & Dumas 2000, p.385.

Oil study, 654 x 914mm, by Frank Salisbury for The Great Artists of Chelsea, profile to right, at left holding large book open, with likenesses of Holbein, Turner, Wren, and others; untraced; Christie’s, 25 Sept. 1985 (46). Repr. Christie’s 4 Nov. 1994 (78).
The subsequent mural by Salisbury, The Great Artists of Chelsea (1913); Chelsea Town Hall, London.
See also Hunt, Lawson, Rossetti, Scott, Whistler.

Photographsback to top

Albumen print by unidentified photographer (possibly William Foster?), whole-length to left, standing, left hand on hip, in Tudor fancy dress outside (Myles) Birket Foster’s house, The Hill, Witley, Surrey; William Foster ‘Scrap book’, priv. coll., f.10 (upper right). Compare with costume in NPG 2771.

Platinum print by Horace Harral; see NPG P861.

Albumen prints by David Wilkie Wynfield; see NPG P76 and NPG P92.

Albumen print, 214 x 166mm, by David Wilkie Wynfield, head-and-shoulders, to right, looking to right, in historical costume, bare-headed with high lace collar; RA, London, 03/6940. Repr. Lindsay 1934, frontispiece.

Albumen print by Elliott & Fry, three-quarter-length to left, looking to left, seated, legs crossed; colls NPG x18976 (vintage print); and Getty Images, 50771324. Photogravure repr. Layard 1892, frontispiece; and Houfe 1995, p.95. See also engravings after Elliott & Fry by E. Schladitz repr. Harper’s Monthly Magazine (European ed.), Mar. 1898, p.505 (MEPL, London, 10070613); wood-engr. of head and shoulders detail by R.T. & Co. repr. ILN, 10 Jan. 1891, p.31, and 14 May 1892, p.591 (colls MEPL, London, 10070614; and BM, London, ref. O’Donoghue 1908–22, vol.2, p.673 [1]); and wood-engr. by H.S. Ulrich repr. Graphic, 10 Jan. 1891, p.31.[5] This photograph was the main obituary image, and the basis for Frampton’s 1896 memorial relief, see above.
This is the prime photographic image for Keene.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, whole-length, seated on folding stool, profile to left; repr. Hudson 1947, facing p.20 (captioned ‘Charles Keene sketching at Witley in the eighteen-seventies from an unpublished photograph in the collection of Mr. G.L. Stampa’).

Photograph by unidentified photographer, standing at extreme left facing right in Foster and Dudley family group at The Hill, Witley, Christmas Day 1882; coll. S.G.A. Glasson. Repr. Reynolds 1984, fig.97.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, whole-length to right, looking to right, standing in garden, hands behind back; colls Cyril Fry; and Getty Images, 50700885. Exh. Charles Keene: ‘The Artists’ Artist’ 1823–1891, Christie’s, London, 1991 (130, not ill.).

Photograph by unidentified photographer, seated in garden, looking to right; coll. Cyril Fry. Exh. Charles Keene: ‘The Artists’ Artist’ 1823–1891, Christie’s, London, 1991 (131, not ill.).

Platinum print by Bryan Hook, three-quarter-length, profile to right, seated in wicker garden chair; Silverbeck Album, priv. coll., p.33.

Undated photograph

Photograph, Christie’s, 21 Oct. 1980, part of lot 47 (not ill.).

1) Keene joined the Volunteer movement, the ‘Corps of Artists’, later Artists’ Rifles, at its inception in 1860.
2) This and other self-caricatures for Punch are listed in Layard 1892, p.119 n1.
3) Letter from C. Keene to J. Crawhall, 18 Feb. 1888: ‘Did you see my portrait in ‘Punch’? I don’t think my dress coat fits so badly as he has depicted it, though it is a very old one.’ See Layard 1892, p.397.
4) The portrait on the easel in the Punch offices is very close to the photograph by Elliott & Fry (see ‘Photographs, c.1873?’). It was perhaps a framed, photographic enlargement, or a painting based on the popular photograph. The Elliott & Fry photograph was also selected as the model for Frampton’s posthumous relief (see below).
5) ‘In 1873 we find Keene again changing his quarters for 11, Queen’s Road West, after nearly ten years over Messrs. Elliott and Fry’s, in Baker Street’; Layard 1892, p.145. This is the basis for dating the photograph. It could also have been taken later.

Carol Blackett-Ord