Later Victorian Portraits Catalogue

Joseph Lister, Baron Lister (1827-1912), Surgeon and founder of a system of antiseptic surgery

Paintings, drawings, sculptures and prints
Undated portraits
Doubtful portraits
Posthumous portraits
Undated photographs
Doubtful photographs

Paintings, drawings, sculptures and printsback to top

Pen, ink and wash silhouettes by Joseph Jackson Lister:
(a) dated 1830, inscr. ‘2y. 10m. 16d.’, head-and-shoulders, profile to right; Wellcome L., London, no.5867i. Repr. Fisher 1977, fig. 4, p.96.
(b) dated 1833, head-and-shoulders, profile to right; Wellcome L., London, no.5868i.
(c) dated 1837 (age 10), head-and-shoulders, profile to right; Wellcome L., London, no.5869i.
(d) dated 1840, head-and-shoulders, profile to right; Wellcome L., London, no.5870i. Photographed by Emery Walker; repr. Godlee 1917, facing p.14, captioned ‘aged 13 years’.

Bust by Edward Bowring Stephens; untraced; in 1968 St Thomas’ H., London. Ref. Gunnis 1968, p.372; and Lawrence 2004.

Pencil drawing by Alphonse Legros (no further details); untraced; presented to the Royal Society, 1921.[1]

Oil on canvas by Alfred Preston Tilt, Baroness Burdett-Coutts’s garden party at Holly Lodge, Highgate, for the International Medical Congress, London 1881, signed ‘A.P.Tilt’ and dated 1882, whole-length, half-profile to right, standing, wearing top hat, far left among more than 80 figures in group portrait (no.26 in key) including James Paget; Wellcome L., London, no.47362i, where ascribed collectively to three Tilt brothers: Arthur, Alfred and Archibald. Exh. Christie’s, 4 May 1922 (246), where entitled ‘A Garden Party at “Holly Lodge”’ and attr. A.P. Tilt; repr. with key to sitters Sakula 1982, figs 2 and 3 (key).
The garden party took place 8 Aug. 1881. Four months later the following announcement was made: ‘Messrs Dickinson of Bond Street are painting a large group-picture of the garden party given by the Baroness Burdett-Coutts to the International Medical Congress in August last. The picture will contain about 100 of the leading visitors and presidents of sections. No doubt it will be engraved when completed’ (BMJ, 10 Dec. 1881, p.945). The group portrait was commissioned by Dickinson Brothers & Foster ‘on behalf of Baroness Burdett-Coutts, who wished to have a pictorial record of the historic event’ (Sakula 1982, p.187). No engraving appears to have been issued. [2]

Oil on canvas by Henry Jamyn Brooks, The Council of the College, 1884–1885, whole-length to right, standing, right hand on chairback, fourth from right in group portrait with 25 other figures gathered around table; RCS England, RCSSC/P 201.

publ. 1888
Mezzotint by unidentified artist, bust three-quarters to right, looking to right; publ. W.A. Mansell & Co., 2 Jan. 1888; KCL Archives, K/PP 152 2/3. Repr. as photogravure; impressions colls Wellcome L., London, no.14444i; and Getty Images, 50696851.

publ. 1890
Lithograph by M. & N. Hanhart after photograph by George Jerrard (see below, ‘Photographs, c.1881’), publ. D.H. Menzies, Glasgow, 1890; impressions colls KCL Archives, K/PP 152 2/7 (3 copies); NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde Archivist; Wellcome L., London, no.5873i; and RCS Edinburgh, ED.CS.2010.133.

Design by Thomas Walter Wilson for The Athenaeum Club: Ballot Day, signed lower left, half-length to left, profile to left, standing at right-hand edge of composition (no.55 in key), in room full of members; untraced. Repr. as wood-engr. by Paul Hermann Naumann, unidentified publication; and with key, Cowell 1975, p.141, captioned ‘Ballot Day, 1892’.
See also Alma-Tadema, Burton, Leighton.

exh. 1893
Oil on canvas by Laurent-Gsell, half-length to left, standing in doctoral robes, embracing Louis Pasteur at Pasteur Jubilee, 27 Dec. 1892, Sorbonne, Paris; Fonds national d’art contemporain, Paris, FNAC 140; see Wellcome Images, M0008829. Exh. Paris Salon 1893; and Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.142.

Oil on canvas by Jean-André Rixens, Louis Pasteur’s Jubilee, whole-length to left, in doctoral robes, arms outstretched towards Pasteur; Fonds national d’art contemporain, Paris, FNAC 1589; see Wellcome L., London, no.14453i; Science Photo L., London, C009/0996; and Getty Images, 2637097. Repr. Cameron 1948, pl.10, facing p.121. The jubilee was in 1892; the painting was commissioned in 1893 and completed 1902 (408 figures).
Chromolithograph after Rixens, publ. Chanteclair, 1923; Bibliothèque de la faculté de médecine, Paris; see Bridgeman AL, CHT234616.

publ. 1894
Watercolour drawing by Thoams Walter Wilson, half-length to left, holding a book, at centre back in a group of 21 medical men variously seated and standing, including Sir James Paget; untraced. Repr. as half-tone, ILN, 27 Oct. 1894, p.537 (double spread), captioned ‘Eminent Doctors’; copy RCP, 4959.

Oil on canvas by Walter William Ouless, almost whole-length to left, seated, legs crossed, head resting on right hand; RCS England, RSSC/P 156. Exh. RA 1897 (296); repr. [Cassell] 1897, p.23; and Guthrie 1949, frontispiece. Commissioned by fellows and members of RCS England in 1894, and unveiled 29 Mar. 1897.[3] ‘It is believed to be the best and most characteristic likeness of the master surgeon’ (Guthrie 1949, p.116).
Copy by Dorofield Hardy, 1921; RCS Edinburgh, ED.CS.2010.134. Ref. RCS Edinburgh Archives, GD 7/1/4, and GD 7/1/12.
Copy by H. Blackburn Hart, 1922; Chemical Heritage Foundation M., Philadelphia; see Science Photo L., London, C014/1059. Colour print publ. Museum Galleries, London, 1922, signed lower right ‘H. Blackburn Hart’ (blindstamped lower left ‘JHDX’), M. of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society, London, LDRPS:PDL1/A.
Copy by Dorofield Hardy, 1927; Royal Society, RS.9714.
Copy by Dorofield Hardy, undated; untraced; formerly Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, Elstree, Herts. [4]
Copy by Douglas Gordon Shields, undated; BMA, BMA House, London.
Copy by F. Hodge, 1938; Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, Adelaide.
Copy by unidentified artist, half-length, undated; Wellcome L., London, no.45714i.
Copy by Hugh Goldwin Riviere, half-length, undated; BMA, BMA House, London.
Colour mezzotint by William Henderson after Ouless, publ. Museum Galleries, London, 1927; KCL Archives, K/PP 152 2/12, blindstamped lower left ‘CGS’.

Oil on canvas by John Henry Lorimer, three-quarter-length, looking to left, seated; U. of Edinburgh Fine Art Coll., EU0038. Exh. RA 1896 (937, ‘presentation portrait’); repr. BMJ, 16 July 1927 (Lister centenary). Commissioned by colleagues and pupils of University of Edinburgh as a gift to Lister; presented 30 July 1895, in theatre of King’s College H., London. [5]
Preparatory pencil drawing, oval format, signed and dated 1895; Wellcome L., London, no.45721i. Exh. Lister Centenary Exh., 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.91.
Photogravure by Swan Electric Engraving Co., publ. 1895; impressions colls KCL Archives, K/PP 152 2/2 (4 copies) and K/PP 152 2/5; Guy’s and St Thomas’ Charity, London, S2002.220; and Wellcome L., London, no.45727i.
Full-size autograph replica, signed and dated 1897; Hunterian AG, U. of Glasgow, GLAHA 44252. Exh Glasgow Historical Portraits Exhibition of Paintings from the 15th to the 19th Century, ?Old Glasgow M., 1956 (46); ref. Godlee 1917, p.533; and Glasgow 1956, p.17, no.46.

Pen and ink drawing by Alexander Stuart Boyd, whole-length to right, standing, left hand on hip, responding to presentation of Lorimer portrait; untraced. Repr. unidentified publication, captioned ‘Sir Joseph Lister returning thanks after the presentation to him yesterday at King’s College Hospital’; cutting Wellcome L., London, no.545241i.

publ. 1896
Watercolour by J. Gulich, after sketch by A. Cox, head, slightly to left, at left in crowd of guests, Liverpool Town Hall; both untraced. Repr. Graphic, 26 Sept. 1896, p.385, captioned ‘The British Association at Liverpool: the Lord Mayor’s conversazione’.

Watercolour by H.M. Paget, after sketch by A. Cox, half-length to right, standing under awning on podium; both untraced. Repr. Graphic, 26 Sept. 1896, p.388, captioned ‘The British Association at Liverpool: Sir Joseph Lister delivering his address’.

after 1896
Oil on canvas by Charles Kay Robertson, bust to right, looking to right, based on photograph by Robert A. Bickersteth (see below, ‘Photographs, 1896’); RCS England, RCSSC/P 515.

Etching by Andrew Watson Turnbull, signed ‘A.W.T.’, head-and-shoulders (only head fully drawn), based on photograph by Bickersteth (see below, ‘Photographs, 1896’, pose reversed in print process); Wellcome L., London, no.5871i. Ref. Burgess 1973, p.219, no.1782.2. Possibly posthumous.

Chalk drawing by unidentified artist, head-and-shoulders to right, based on photograph by Bickersteth (see below, ‘Photographs, 1896’); untraced; see Getty Images, 89860207. Possibly posthumous.

publ. 1897
Watercolour by Samuel Begg, half-length slightly to right, standing presiding at Royal Society; untraced; in 1927 coll. Sir Hugh Beevor; see Wellcome Images, M0003463; MEPL, London, 10050246; Getty Images, 90772701 and 50696325. Exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.91; repr. ILN, 9 Jan. 1897, p.37, captioned ‘The New Year Honours: Sir Joseph Lister, Bart, President of the Royal Society, raised to the Peerage’.

Pen and ink caricatures by unidentified artist, two whole-length figures; untraced. Publ. programme for symposium in honour of Lister, Belfast, 19 Jan. 1897, front and back covers; copy of programme Wellcome L., London, Archives & Manuscripts (no further details).

Wax medallion by Margaret May Giles (Mrs Bernard Jenkin); see NPG 1897.
Plaster cast of medallion, c.1898; see NPG 1897a.

Drawing by Lance Calkin, whole-length to left, seated, shaking hands with Prof. Rudolf Virchow on occasion of his Huxley lecture, 3 Oct. 1898; untraced; see Getty Images, 3277373. Repr. Rains 1977, p.77.

Plaster figure by unidentified sculptor, whole-length, head profile to right, standing by operating table, at centre of group of assistants and students, wearing surgical smock; Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, surgical sciences block, tympanum;[6] see Wellcome L., London, no.665026i; and Himetop website. Repr. Godlee 1917, facing p.513.

‘Black-and-white painting: Lister at the congress on Tuberculosis, 1901’; untraced. Exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.91.

publ. 1902
Painting by Hugh Goldwin Riviere, three-quarter-length to right, head turned to viewer, seated in armchair; BMA House, London; see Wellcome Images, M001719. Repr. by Swain, BMJ, 13 Dec. 1902.

exh. 1908
Portrait by Charles E. Ritchie (no further details); untraced. Exh. RA 1908 (1522, in Black and White Room). Possibly same as ‘Black-and-white drawing of Lord Lister (head only)’ (see below, ‘exh. 1927’).

Pencil drawing by H. Hill, composite of scenes of King’s College H. and 20 heads in roundels; untraced. Publ. as lithograph Beynon & Co., Cheltenham, captioned ‘Memorial of King’s College Hospital’; signed artist’s proofs, Wellcome L., London, no.23962i; and KCL Archives (no ref no.). The medallion of Lister, middle right, is copied from the portrait by Lorimer (see above, ‘1895’). [7]

exh. 1927
Drawing by unidentified artist; untraced. Exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; repr. Wellcome 1927, p.91, captioned ‘Black-and-white drawing of Lord Lister (head only)’. Possibly same as portrait by Ritchie (see above, ‘exh. 1908’).

Undated portraitsback to top

Oil on canvas by unidentified artist, half-length in oval, head facing; Wellcome L., London, no.45722i. The composition is based on photograph by Barrauds Ltd (see below, ‘Photographs, 1895, pose (b)’).

Oil on canvas by unidentified artist, three-quarter-length to left, seated, arms folded, a small portrait of his father, Joseph Jackson Lister, on table at left; [8] Wellcome L., London, no.581881i. The composition is based on photograph by T. & R. Annan (see below, ‘Photographs, c.1866–70, pose (a)’).

Etching by Wilfred Crawford Appleby, head-and-shoulders, looking three-quarters to right; impressions colls Wellcome L., London, no.5872i (proof, signed and inscr. ‘2/75’); Hunterian AG Colls, U. of Glasgow, GLAHA 3860; RCS Edinburgh, HC.AL.1.25; and RCS England, RCSSC/P 2102. Exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.91. Probably based on a photograph (in etching hair is parted on wrong side), and possibly posthumous (Appleby b.1889).

Etching by Charles Dupêchez, head-and-shoulders to left; impressions colls Wellcome L., London, no.5875i; and RCS Edinburgh, temp-1971. The composition is based on photograph by Elliott & Fry (see below, ‘Photographs, publ. 1896, pose (a)’).

Lithograph by unidentified artist, head-and-shoulders three-quarters to right, vignette; Wellcome L., London, no. 9948i. ?Based on photograph.

Chromolithograph by unidentified artist, head-and-shoulders three-quarters to right; MEPL, London, 10081880.

Doubtful portraitsback to top

Oil on canvas, signed ‘Wells Pinxit’, label on stretcher inscr. ‘about 1867’, half-length, three-quarters to left, head turned to viewer, standing, arms folded, wearing broad black tie; Hunterian AG Colls, U. of Glasgow, GLAHA 44253. Offered to NPG (offer no.178/1938), declined as doubtful likeness. Repr. Lister Centenary Scientific Meeting programme, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Sept. 1965, title page. [9]

Diorama by unidentified artist, whole-length to left, standing operating on a patient, with three assistants; Lower Wellcome G., Science M., London; see Science & Society Picture L., 10288097.

Woodcut by unidentified artist, whole-length to left, standing operating on a patient, with three assistants (different composition to 1877 diorama above); repr. unidentified publications (cuttings MEPL, London, 10802268 and 10539334).

Posthumous portraitsback to top

Medal for 17th International Congress of Medicine, London, 1913, designed by Cecil Brown and cast by Elkington & Co., obverse: head of Lister, almost full profile to left, based on photograph by George Jerrard (see below, ‘Photographs, c.1881’) (no inscription); reverse: female allegorical figure with inscription and date. Six silver medals struck, as well as an indeterminate number of bronze replicas, including:
(a) silver medal dated 1912; RCS England, RCSSC/M 158.
(b) bronze replica medal dated 1913; copies colls RCS England, RCSSC/M 160–63; RCS Edinburgh, HC.M.1.2 (‘brass’) and GD 5/199; and Johns Hopkins U., Baltimore, MD.

Bronze Lister Prize medal, commissioned by U. of Adelaide, obverse: bust, head and shoulders facing, based on photograph by Barrauds Ltd (see below, ‘Photographs, 1895, pose (b)’); M. Victoria, Melbourne, NU 34849.

Painting by Ernest Board, at left in group scene showing first operation under ether anaesthesia in Britain (1846); destroyed 1952. Repr. Guthrie 1949, pl.2 (not a likeness). Commissioned for UCH Medical School by Sir Henry Wellcome.

Bust by Sir Thomas Brock, three known versions:
(a) plaster; see NPG 1958.
(b) marble, signed and dated 1913; RCS England, RCSSC/P 157. Ref. Godlee 1917, p.533, n.1: ‘The bust at the Royal College of Surgeons and the medallion in Westminster Abbey, both executed by Sir Thomas Brock after Lister’s death, are extraordinarily good. They are monuments of the skill of this distinguished sculptor.’ Commissioned by RCS England 1912.
(c) bronze, 1927; see NPG 1958a.

exh. 1914
‘Circular low relief’ (material unknown) by James Havard Thomas; untraced. Exh. Commemorative Exhibition of Sculpture and Drawings by J. Havard Thomas (1854–1921), Beaux Arts G., London, 1936 (22), where dated 1914. This relief relates to the two Lister memorial roundels at UCL (see below, ‘1919’). [10]
Preparatory pencil drawing, undated, profile to left in roundel; Tate, T07025.

Marble medallion by Sir Thomas Brock, inscr. ‘LORD LISTER’, head-and-shoulders, profile to left; Westminster Abbey (north aisle). Repr. Dupree 2013, p.267, fig.3(a). In Oct. 1912, at first meeting of Lister Memorial Committee, decision taken to commission a ‘simple marble medallion’ for Westminster Abbey. [11] Brock was awarded the commission Mar. 1914, and the marble medallion was unveiled 1 Nov. 1915.
Plaster model of medallion; Old Medical School, King’s College H., London. Repr. Godlee 1917, facing p.595; and Cartwright 1963, fig.13. ‘A marble medallion portrait by Sir Thomas Brock, R.A., is placed in the north transept of Westminster Abbey to the memory of Lord Lister. The original plaster model of the medallion portrait was obtained [for King’s College H.] by Willoughby Lyle from Sir Thomas Brock himself, through the kindness of Sir Rickman Godlee, in 1916, and it is now [1935] fixed on the west wall of the Library in the Medical School of King’s College Hospital’ (Lyle 1935, p.196).

Marble memorial reliefs by James Havard Thomas:
(a) inscr. (five lines) ‘JOSEPH LISTER ... /AWARDED THE ORDER OF MERIT MCMII’, signed and dated 1919, head-and-shoulders in roundel, profile to left, round-topped memorial; UCL Art M., 2142. Repr. Harte & North 1978, p.63; photogravure of memorial, RCP L., London, PH 4662 (ref. Hake 1925, p.268).
(b) inscr. (seven lines) ‘JOSEPH LISTER ... / AWARDED THE ORDER OF MERIT 1902’, signed and dated 1919, head-and-shoulders in roundel, profile to left, rectangular memorial; UCL. Photogravure of memorial, RCP L., London, PH 4661; and Wellcome L., London, no.5874i.
See ref. to two medallion portraits by J.H. Thomas in Godlee 1924, p.535, n.1.
For related Lister portraits by J.H. Thomas, see above, ‘Posthumous portraits, exh. 1914’.

1920 onwards
Joseph Lister Memorial Fund medal by Charles Leonard Hartwell, obverse inscr. ‘JOSEPH LISTER 1827 – 1912’, head, profile to left; reverse inscr. ‘FOR DISTINGUISHED CONTRIBUTIONS ... [name of recipient] ... LISTER MEDAL’. Commissioned by Lister Memorial Fund, 1920, and struck by RCS England. The medal was first awarded in 1924 and a copy struck every three years thereafter.
Hartwell’s model for the obverse of medal; untraced. Exh. RA 1923 (1365).
Two known copies:
(a) lead cast medal, 1920; RCS England, RCSSC/M 7.
(b) bronze medal, 1924; Weston Education Centre, KCL.

Bronze bust by Sir Thomas Brock, based on NPG 1957, signed and dated 1922, colossal scale, on granite plinth (with bronze figures of woman and boy); Joseph Lister Memorial, Portland Place, London. Repr. Ward-Jackson 2011, p.231. Early photograph Royal Society L., London; see Wellcome Images, M0005237. Brock completed the modelling ‘with his own hand’ and oversaw casting of the bust before his death on 22 Aug. 1922; [12] the memorial was completed by Frank Arnold Wright and unveiled 13 Mar. 1924.
Brock’s ‘sketch model’ and photographs of model as shown to Lister Memorial Committee, July 1921; all untraced. [13]
A version (it is unclear which) exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927 as ‘Replica of the Bust of Lord Lister in Portland Place, London W.1, from Sir Thomas Brock R.A.’; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.143.

Bronze statue by George Henry Paulin, cast by MacDonald & Creswick, unveiled 17 Sept. 1924, whole-length, looking to his right, seated in academic robes, on granite base; Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow. Photograph SNPG, Edinburgh, S.Ph VII 13-11; see Wellcome Images, M0006526. Repr. McKenzie 2002, p.242; and Notes & Records of the Royal Society, vol.67, no.3, 2013, p.185. See also ‘Monument to Lord Lister’, PMSA website.
Bust-only version; untraced. Exh. Glasgow Fine Arts Exh., 1923 (7, ill. fig.15).

Bronze statuette, possibly by G.H. Paulin, c.1923, whole-length, looking to his right, seated in academic robes; Science M., London, A659187; see Wellcome Images, L0058926.

Bronze relief by Natt C. Jacobs, head; Strong Memorial H., Rochester, NY, IAS NY001582.
Plaster replica; untraced. Exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.143.

Bronze centenary medal by Robert Bryden, obverse signed and dated 1927, and inscr. ‘SIR JOSEPH BARON LISTER […] FRS’, ETC. ETC.’, head-and-shoulders three-quarters to left; a copy sold A.H. Baldwin & Sons Ltd, 26 Sept. 2012 (1788), see NumisBids website. Composition modelled on photograph by George Jerrard (see below, ‘Photographs, c.1881’).

Crayon drawing by John Duncan after portrait by J.H. Lorimer (see above, ‘1895’); Hunterian AG Colls, U. of Glasgow, GLAHA 42124.

Plaster/terracotta model for memorial roundel by Julia Bracken Wendt, inscr. ‘JOSEPH LISTER /1827 /1912/ FOUNDER OF / SCIENTIFIC / SURGERY’, head-and-shoulders, almost full face; untraced. Framed photograph of medallion, dated 1928 on reverse, Wellcome L., London, no.45711i; old photograph of this roundel placed on an easel; Clendening History of Medicine L., U. of Kansas, Kansas City. Based on photograph by Elliott & Fry (see below, ‘Photographs, publ. 1896, pose (b)’).

Stone sculpture by Louis Linck, whole-length (heroic scale), full-face, pointing to antiseptic spray machine; International M. of Surgical Science, Chicago. See Himetop website.

Bronze bust by Jack Penn, RCS Edinburgh, ED.CS.2010.132. [14]

Stone bas-relief, 980mm high, by Sir Charles Wheeler, lettered at base ‘LISTER’, head-and-shoulders profile to right, in shallow niche, displayed over rectangular plaque inscr. ‘THIS TABLET … IN/ SURGERY’; RCS England, RCSSC/P 430.
Associated plaster relief; RCS England, RCSSC/P 430.1 (see below, ‘Posthumous portraits, Undated’).

Bronze medal designed by Abram Belskie and struck by Medallic Art Co., New York, obverse: head-and-shoulders three-quarters to right, based on photograph by Barrauds Ltd (see below, ‘Photographs, 1895, pose (b)’); reverse: standing in group of four figures around patient on table; American Numismatic Soc., Bronze Medal of Presidential Art Medal, U.S. 1982.32.4.

‘Effigy of Lord Lister’ (no further details); RCS Edinburgh, temp-187.

Plaster relief, 580mm high, by Sir Charles Wheeler, lettered at base ‘LISTER’ and ‘This Plaque was a Personal Gift to me by the artist Sir Charles Wheeler PRA / BROCK’, head-and-shoulders, profile to right, in shallow niche; RCS England, RCSSC/P 430.1.[15]
For the larger stone bas-relief by Wheeler see above, ‘Posthumous portraits, 1967’.

Oil on canvas by Harry Herman Salomon, half-length to right, standing delivering a lecture; Wellcome L., London, no.45715i. Exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.90. Test tubes in foreground allude to Lister’s inaugural speech at KCL (1877), and Salomon’s composition is based on watercolour by Samuel Begg (see above, ‘publ. 1897’). The painting was commissioned by Henry S. Wellcome for his gallery of portraits, the Wellcome Historical Medical M., founded 1913.

Painting by O.F. Schmidt, half-length to right, standing wearing apron, taking pulse of female patient on operating table, surrounded by seven onlookers; untraced; in 1944 Lambert Pharmacal Co., St Louis, MO. Repr. Truax 1944, facing p.234. Undated but twentieth century.

Chalk drawing by Edith Margaret Leeson Everett, half-length to left, at bedside of sick child, with members of team on hospital round; untraced; see Wellcome Images, M0006545; and Getty Images, 113444891. Lister’s appearance is c.1870s but drawing is probably twentieth century.

Crayon drawing by William Sharp, signed lower left-hand corner ‘WS’, head three-quarters to right; untraced. An undated but twentieth-century drawing based on the photograph by Bickersteth (see below, ‘Photographs, 1896’).

Medallion by unidentified sculptor; Glasgow Royal Infirmary: ‘The medallion in the Glasgow Infirmary was not from life, and is by no means a good likeness’ (Godlee 1917, p.533, n.1): the reference suggests this medallion was made between 1912 and 1917. It may be connected with a bronze wall plaque bearing Lister’s profile (to left) in a roundel, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, repr. McDonald 2010, p.140.

Portrait by unidentified artist, almost three-quarter-length to right, standing over a sick child, figure of Death in window at right; untraced; in 1977 coll. Lloyds and Scottish Finance Ltd. Photograph SNPG, Sph.VII.13-15. Head based on photograph by Elliott & Fry (see below, ‘Photographs, publ. 1896, pose (a)’) but in reverse.

Photographsback to top

‘Photograph of Lister on his arrival in Edinburgh in 1852’; exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.89.

Photograph by unidentified Edinburgh photographer, half-length, looking to right, seated, hands clasped, surrounded by six colleagues, Old Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, summer 1854; prints colls RCS Edinburgh, GD 5/156 (oval detail on cabinet card); and Wellcome L., London, no.14449i. Repr. Guthrie 1949, pl.5, facing p.33, captioned ‘“The Chief” and his associates in Edinburgh, 1854’; Rains 1977, p.40; Shepherd 1991, vol.2, frontispiece; and Macintyre & MacLaren 2005, p.118.

Photographs taken around time of marriage, 23 Apr. 1856, Edinburgh, three known poses:
(a) daguerreotype by unidentified photographer, nearly whole-length, head slightly to right, eyes to camera, seated, legs crossed, alongside Agnes Lister in white dress,[16] base of column at left; Wellcome L., London, Archives and Manuscripts (no further details). Lister’s hair parting shows image is reversed. Repr. Fisher 1977, fig.8, facing p.161.
(b) albumen print by unidentified photographer, oval format, three-quarter-length, slightly to left, seated in armchair, legs crossed, eyes to camera, wearing broad black tie and upturned collar; copy Wellcome L., London, no.14440i. Exh. Sotheby’s, 24 June 1988 (153, ill.). [17]
(c) albumen print by James Good Tunny, nearly whole-length to left, looking to left, seated on chair with cane seat, legs crossed, wearing a broad tie and upturned collar; SNPG, Edinburgh, PGP 64.4.

?mid- to late 1850s
Photographs by unidentified photographer, two known poses:
(a) wet collodion negative, three-quarter-length, head turned slightly to right, seated, hands clasped on lap, legs crossed, wearing light tweed suit under dark coat, broad black tie; stylised tile pattern on tablecloth; NPG x7962. Repr. Cameron 1914, frontispiece, head-and-shoulders detail; and Cameron 1948, pl.5, facing p.37 (‘daguerreotype’).
(b) carte-de-visite, three-quarter-length facing, seated, hands clasped on lap, legs crossed; prints colls Wellcome L., London, no.14436i; and RCS Edinburgh, GD 5/156 (head-and-shoulders detail).

Daguerreotype by unidentified photographer, three-quarter-length facing, hair quite short (parting shows image is reversed), seated, right hand resting on table and holding book; RCS England, RCSSC/P 3239. Photograph by Emery Walker, NPG, Emery Walker neg. box no. 2099/3. Photogravure by Emery Walker (image no longer reversed), repr. Godlee 1917, facing p.42, captioned ‘aged about 28’; see Wellcome Images, M0006512. A detail from this head appeared on British 1st class postage stamps in 2010, part of special issue of ten stamps marking 350th anniversary of the Royal Society.

Stereoscopic photograph by unidentified (?Edinburgh) photographer, whole-length, looking to left, standing, left hand on hip, abundant hair, broad black tie, curtains at right and left; Wellcome L, London, no.14438i.

Three photographs of Lister in 1850s; exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.89.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, ‘Joseph Lister 1862’ (no further details); RCS Edinburgh, temp-253.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, probably taken in Glasgow, three-quarter-length, looking to left, standing, left arm resting on pedestal, wearing broad black tie; Wellcome L., London, Archives and Manuscripts, MS. 6973/2. Repr. Fisher 1977, fig.9, facing p.192.

Photographs by T. & R. Annan, three known poses:
(a) three-quarter-length to left, seated, arms folded and legs crossed, eyes downcast, receding hairline, wearing narrow black tie, table at right; prints colls SNPG, Edinburgh, PGP 74.5 (carbon print); RCS Edinburgh, HC.AL.1.16 [18]; and Wellcome L., London, no.14439i (large print on mount stamped ‘T&R Annan and Sons Glasgow’ with coat of arms of royal warrant [19]).
Cartes-de-visite, half-length detail of above; prints colls Wellcome L., London, no.14437i (address on back of mount: ‘Thomas Annan, 202 Hope St, Glasgow, and Burnbank Road, Hamilton’) [20]; and Wellcome L., London, no.15120i (Richard Davy photo album).
Another half-length detail; RCS Edinburgh, HC.AL.1.6.
See also a greatly enlarged copy (half-length, framed); Wellcome L., London, no.581882i. [21]
Rephotographed by John Moffat of Edinburgh 1908; see bromide print NPG x27776. [22] Repr. Cameron 1914, facing p.10; Wellcome 1927, p.32, half-length, and captioned ‘Glasgow 1868’; Truax 1944, frontispiece; and Lister Centenary Scientific Meeting programme, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Sept. 1965, cover. [23] The image was repr. on the British 1s. postage stamp (in reverse), 1965: ‘The first British stamp issue explicitly celebrating scientific achievement was the Lister Centenary stamp (1965).’ [24]
Photogravure by Emery Walker after Moffat, publ. Lister 1909, vol.1, frontispiece, described (in list of illustrations) as from a ‘photograph taken in Edinburgh in 1856’; [25] see NPG x12429; NPG x12430; NPG x12431; MEPL, London, 10076438; and Getty Images, 3402668; head-and-shoulders detail, SNPG, PGP R 1121.76.
Lister’s opinion of the Moffat/Annan image in 1908: ‘If I am to speak of a likeness of myself, I may say that this pleases me as much as any that have been taken.’ [26] He continued: ‘I had quite forgotten its existence; but my butler has shewn me today a print which he has had in his possession for many years; and from it I learn that it was taken in Edinburgh by Annan of Calton Hill Stair. This shews that the photograph must have been taken during the period when I was an extra-academical lecturer in Edinburgh, the period during which I was engaged in physiological & pathological work long anterior to antiseptic days.’ [27] Lister deduced the photograph was taken by Annan in Edinburgh c.1855–60, whereas Annan’s period in the Edinburgh studio was much later, 1869–70. On the evidence of the Annan photograph with a Glasgow address (see above, Wellcome L., London, no.14437i), Lister sat to Annan in Glasgow in the late 1860s. He gained national prominence in 1867 with articles published in the Lancet on the use of carbolic acid in surgery.
The best-known image of Lister in his prime, before his move from Edinburgh to London in 1877.

(b) three-quarter-length to left, eyes raised and looking to left, seated in armchair, holding book open with left hand, legs crossed, table at right; rephotographed by Emery Walker; NPG, Emery Walker neg. boxes nos TW 143A and 2172/1; see MEPL, London, 10668093. Repr. as photogravure by Emery Walker, c.1917; ref. Godlee 1917, facing p.209, where described as photogravure after photograph by ‘Annan Brothers photographers Edinburgh’, and captioned ‘aged about 40’ (i.e. c.1867, when still in Glasgow); see Wellcome Images, L0014269; and Science Photo L., London, H412/0107.

(c) carte-de-visite printed ‘Thos Annan Glasgow’, half-length slightly to left, head turned to viewer, seated (same chair as in pose (b) above); SNPG, Edinburgh, S.Ph.VII 13-10. Publ. Memorial of the Old College of Glasgow, Glasgow, 1871: some props/furniture in these Annan portraits of Glasgow academics can be found in Annan’s photo of Lister, suggesting a common Glasgow studio.

late 1870s
Photographs by Barraud & Jerrard, [28] three known poses:
(a) cabinet card by ‘Barraud’, nearly half-length, three-quarters to right, looking to right, hair more grey than white, wearing narrow black tie; see Wellcome Images, L0008503; and Science & Society Picture L., 10299139.
(b) cabinet card, nearly half-length, three-quarters to right, looking slightly to right; Science Photo L., London, H412/0106.
(c) head-and-shoulders, profile to left; prints colls Science Photo L., London, H412/0368; and U. of Edinburgh Special Collections. Repr. Macintyre & MacLaren 2005, p.118.
A drawing after pose (c) appeared on a Benin 210fr stamp, 1977 (Lister’s 150th anniversary).

Cabinet card by George Milner Gibson Jerrard, bust, three-quarters to left, head almost full profile to left, looking to left; two copies and a later copyprint with accompanying slip of paper inscr. ‘From an album of portraits of officers of the 7th International Medical Congress, London, 1881’, Wellcome L., London, no.14442i; Wellcome L., London, no.15081i (here attrib. to Herbert Rose Barraud).
Another cabinet card, head-and-shoulders detail of above in oval; RCS Edinburgh, Archives, GD 5/156. Repr. Cameron 1948, pl. 12, facing p.137; see MEPL, London, 10539333.
Wood engraving by Thomas D. Scott (‘TDS’) after Jerrard ‘from a photograph by Claudet’; repr. ILN, 5 Jan.1884, p.13;[29] see MEPL, London, 10218184.
Another engraving by unidentified wood engraver after Jerrard, repr. Graphic, 5 Jan. 1884, p.5.
Photogravure by Emery Walker after Jerrard; repr. Godlee 1924, facing p. 394; and Cheyne 1925, frontispiece; see Wellcome Images, L0014270.
For lithograph by Hanhart after Jerrard, see above, ‘publ. 1890’.
Lister’s head on the Joseph Lister Memorial Fund medal is based on the Jerrard photograph; see above, ‘Posthumous portraits, 1920’.[30]
The Jerrard photograph is the most important image of Lister in the 1880s.

publ. 1882
Photograph by Herbert Rose Barraud, whole-length to left, head three-quarters to left, standing, both hands visible, in photomontage/composite group portrait titled ‘Members of the International Medical Congress, London 1881 / designed and photographed by Mr. Barraud, London’, publ. by Billiere, Tindall & Cox, 25 Feb. 1882 (Lister no.253 in published key); Wellcome L., London, no.574994i. Repr. Sakula 1982, fig.4.

Photograph by C.A. Gandy, whole-length, standing at extreme left of a Lister family wedding group photograph, May 1883; see Wellcome Images, L0016132.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, whole-length to right, seated at centre of Victoria Ward, King’s College H., London, with nurses, assistants, patients in beds; KCL Archives, K/PP 152 1/6.

Photograph by William Speed Hayman (a medical colleague), whole-length, three-quarters to right, standing with house surgeon and senior dresser at right, Surgical Ward, King’s College H., London; vintage print, negative and modern prints, KCL Archives, K/PP 152 /2/1. Repr. Fisher 1977, fig.13, facing p.256.

Photograph by ?W.S. Hayman, three-quarter-length to left, standing, left hand resting on chair, with nurses and dresser at left, King’s College H., London; KCL Archives, KH PP 8 1/1/9.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, whole-length, three quarters to left, seated, surrounded by dressers, nurses and patients, Victoria Ward, King’s College H., London, Oct. 1891; Wellcome L., London, no.14475i. Repr. Cameron 1948, pl.11, facing p.131.

Photograph by ?Herbert Rose Barraud, whole-length to right, head facing, in photomontage/composite group portrait publ. by Barrauds Ltd., titled ‘Seventh International Congress of Hygiene and Demography, London August 10–17th 1891’ (no publ. date); Wellcome L., London, no.574977i.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, whole-length, three-quarters to right, seated surrounded by dressers, nurses and patients, Victoria Ward, King’s College H., London; Wellcome L., London, no.14476i.

Photographs by Barrauds Ltd, [31] two known poses:
(a) cabinet card, three-quarter-length slightly to left, half-smile directed at camera, standing, double watch chain across waistcoat; RCS Edinburgh, Archives, GD 5/156. Used in photomontage ‘Lord Lister with his House Surgeons and Dressers, 1861–1893’ produced to mark Lister’s retirement from KCL in 1893, Lister standing centre foreground (no.158 in key); copies Wellcome L., London, 574997i and 666431i (key). Repr. Cameron 1948, frontispiece.
(b) three-quarter-length seated, legs crossed. Repr. Mumford 1908, frontispiece.

Photographs by Barrauds Ltd, two known poses:
(a) silver gelatine print, three-quarter-length to right, looking to right, seated, left arm resting on table; BMA House, London, IMA/965. Repr. ILN, 19 Sept. 1896, p.355; and BMJ, 17 Feb. 1912 (obits), p.397.
Albumen cabinet card, almost half-length detail of above; NPG x4965. [32]
Head-and-shoulders detail of above; Wellcome L, London, no.45719i.
Photogravure, head-and-shoulders detail of above; see NPG x20058.
(b) bust three-quarters to right, head turned to face; Wellcome L., London, no.14441i. Repr. Lancet, 17 Feb. 1912, suppl. (obits); copy RCP England L., PH6120.
Photogravure by Walker & Boutall; repr. Lister 1909, vol.2, frontispiece, described as ‘from a photograph taken in 1895’; copies colls NPG x20057; RCS England, RCSSC/P 2101; and Science Photo L., London, H412/0467. See also MEPL, London, 10163340, 10798782 (image in reverse), 10668092; and Getty Images, 90773100.
For a woodcut after this photograph, see Getty Images, 96803680.

Photograph by Robert A. Bickersteth, head-and-shoulders to right, looking to right, taken during meeting of BMA in Liverpool in 1896;[33] see Getty Images, 141553113. Repr. Turner 1927, frontispiece; Thomson 1936, facing p.iii; and Rains 1977, frontispiece.
Rephotographed by Emery Walker, NPG Emery Walker neg. box, no.2295/4 (no date); repr. as photogravure Godlee 1917, frontispiece.

publ. 1896
Photographs by Elliott & Fry, three known poses:
(a) albumen cabinet cards, three-quarter-length, three-quarters to left, looking slightly to left, seated in armchair, both hands visible; NPG x135718; and Royal Society (no further details).
Chlorobromide print on cream card mount; NPG x127458.
Half-plate glass negative, half-length detail of above pose; NPG x81977.
Cabinet card; Wellcome L., London, Archives and Manuscripts, MS.6973/5.
Repr. Werckmeister 1898–1901, vol.2, pl.173; British Journal of Surgery, vol.1, no.1, 1913, frontispiece; and Fisher 1977, facing p.288 (half length); see MEPL, London, 10412754. Also repr. as head and shoulders in oval, ILN, 5 July 1902, p.17, with four other medical portraits, captioned ‘The King’s Illness: His Majesty’s Medical Advisers’; see Getty Images, 3087556.
Engraving, head-and-shoulders, publ. Nos Maîtres (no further details); see MEPL, London, 10076406.
Large photogravure, publ. Adolf Eckstein, Berlin; repr. Mansch n.d., pl.31, NPG Archive; and loose print, KCL Archive, TH/PH5/16.[34]
Head-and-shoulders detail of above in photomontage; NPG Photography Collection, album 177, ‘Groups of Eminent Personages’, plate A (‘Celebrities in the Church, Science, Literature and Art’), visible at lower right hand corner (no. 81 in key). Repr. Transkei 30c stamp, 1982; and Malawi K.150 stamp, 2011.

(b) three-quarter-length, three-quarters to left, looking at viewer, seated in armchair, slight smile; Wellcome L., London, no.14443i. Repr. Review of Reviews, vol.14, 1896, p.193 (head-and-shoulders detail); Graphic, 5 July 1902, p.15, captioned ‘the King’s Doctors’; and Thomson 1936, title page (head-and-shoulders detail).
Wood engr., head-and-shoulders detail, publ. Graphic, 9 Jan. 1897, p.30.

(c) head-and-shoulders, pose close to (b) but with eyes raised; Getty Images, 78950117.

The Elliott & Fry and Barraud photographs were the main late-life images.

Photograph by Mayall & Co., whole-length, head slightly to right, seated, in court dress, with Sir Michael Foster and nine others at Royal Society, on day of visit to Buckingham Palace to receive peerage; Wellcome L., London, no.14452i. Exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.86.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, at banquet given by Lister’s former house surgeons, clerks and dressers, 26 May 1897; exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.100.

Photograph by Lord Polwarth, nearly whole-length walking to left, wearing homburg hat, on board SS Parisian, travelling to BMA meetings in Canada, 1897; RCS England. Repr. Rains 1977, p.19.

Photographs by Notman & Sons, two whole-length poses outside a Canadian railway carriage, with members of travelling party, autumn 1897; RCS Edinburgh, HC.AL.1.19; see Wellcome Images, L0010000 and V0027882. Exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.86.

Photograph by Fradelle & Young, half-length, full-face, in white tie, chairing dinner for Dr William Smoult Playfair; KCL Archives, K/PP 152 1/2, captioned on mount ‘The complimentary dinner to Dr. William Playfair, by his friends, former colleagues and accoucheurs, Grand Hotel, London, 4 July 1898’.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, head-and-shoulders three quarters to right, wearing top hat, riding in open carriage on 28 June 1907, when awarded Freedom of City of London; Wellcome L., London, Archives and Manuscripts, MS.6973/7. Exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.86; repr. Fisher 1977, fig.16, facing p.289 (head and shoulders only). ‘It was as if only his ghost was seen driving into the City alongside of Sir Douglas Powell for he looked his great age. His cheeks were careworn, his hair and new-grown beard were snow white and his whole body shrunken’ (Phillips 1923, p.168).
Rephotographed by Emery Walker; NPG, Emery Walker negs, nos 2149/3 and 2145/5.

Undated photographsback to top

Photograph by unidentified photographer, half-length, full face, standing, wearing black hat, with ten others (?family), against panelled door; see Wellcome Images, M0006543.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, head three-quarters to right, looking to right, with prominent white whiskers; see Wellcome Images, M0002551.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, under cedar tree, Upton House, West Ham; exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.86.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, with Agnes Lister; exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; ref. Wellcome 1927, p.86.

Doubtful photographsback to top

Calotype by David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson, inscr. ‘Mr Lister’ under mount, three-quarter-length, profile to left, seated, arms folded; SNPG, Edinburgh, PGP HA 1343. Repr. Stevenson 1981, p.82. [35]

1) Drawing presented by Dr Henry Head, 16 June 1921; see Royal Society, Minutes of Council, 1920–26, vol.12, 16 June 1921.
2) The final event of the Congress took place at Crystal Palace, where delegates were entertained by a firework display that included ‘fire portraits’ of Paget, Jean-Martin Charcot and Bernard van Langenbach (Mac Cormac 1881, vol.1, p.187).
3) Godlee 1917, p.532.
4) The institute closed in 1978.
5) Godlee 1917, pp.532–3.
6) The Policlinico Umberto I was built between 1888 and 1902.
7) The print was probably designed to mark the hospital’s move in 1909 from its site in Holborn to a new one in Camberwell.
8) The portrait of Joseph Jackson Lister is similar to Wellcome L., London, no.45720i.
9) For a reproduction of the programme title page, see Dupree 2013, p.270, fig.4b.
10) Thomas became professor of sculpture at the Slade School of Fine Art, UCL, in 1914.
11) See Ward-Jackson 2011, p.23.
12) Brock 2012, p.132.
13) See Ward-Jackson 2011, p.232. The First World War delayed plans for a Lister monument in a public space in London, and the project was not revived until 1920.
14) Professor Jack Penn (1909–96) was a plastic and reconstructive surgeon, and a fellow of RCS England. He was also a writer and sculptor.
15) Wheeler began studying at RCA in 1912, the year of Lister’s death. The inscription is apparently anachronistic, as Brock died in 1922, and Wheeler was PRA 1956–66 (and knighted 1958).
16) In another photograph of Agnes Lister posed alone (wearing same dress) a wedding band is visible on her left hand: see Godlee 1917, facing p.53.
17) Note the same type of chair in an 1856 photograph of Agnes Lister alone (in a dark coloured dress); exh. Lister Centenary Exh., London, 1927; repr. Wellcome 1927, facing p.31.
18) Annan bought rights to the carbon print process for Scotland in 1866.
19) The royal warrant was awarded to T. & R. Annan and Sons in 1889, two years after Thomas Annan’s death, so the word ‘Glasgow’ here has no bearing on whether the photo was taken in Glasgow or Edinburgh.
20) 202 Hope St was Annan’s Glasgow address 1859–73, and Burnbank Road his address in Hamilton from 1864.
21) The framed print was placed over the fireplace in a 1920s reconstruction of Lister’s Glasgow Royal Infirmary Male Ward at the Wellcome Historical Medical M., Wigmore St., London; for a photograph of this room see Wellcome L., London, no.28965i.
22) See letter from J. Lister to H.J. Styles, 18 Mar. 1908, re Moffat making enlargements of a photograph taken by ‘Annan of Calton Hill Stair [Edinburgh]’, RCS Edinburgh, Archives, GD 5/176. Lister was 81 years old in 1908 and in poor health, and inaccuracies in this letter have proved a source of errors.
23) When the photograph is reproduced without caption details it is impossible to tell whether it is the original by Annan or the rephotograph by Moffat. Lister approved the rephotography: ‘I can have no objection to Moffat keeping the negative when he has made it, and disposing of any number of prints which he might be asked for’ (letter from J. Lister to H.J. Styles, 18 Mar. 1908, RCS Edinburgh, Archives, GD 5/176).
24) See ‘The Royal Society 350 Years’, British Postal M. & Archive website. 1865 was the year of the first successful antiseptic operation.
25) But Lister is certainly nearer 40 than 30 in this photograph. The source of the 1856 date is Lister’s letter of 18 Mar. 1908; see note 21.
26) Letter from J. Lister to H.J. Styles, 18 Mar. 1908, RCS Edinburgh, Archives, GD 5/176.
27) ‘Antiseptic days’ i.e. Lister’s Glasgow period, c.1860–69; letter from J. Lister to H.J. Styles, 18 Mar. 1908, RCS Edinburgh, Archives, GD 5/176.
28) Barraud & Jerrard, the partnership between Herbert Rose Barraud and George Milner Gibson Jerrard, lasted from 1873 to 1880.
29) A reference to Henri Claudet’s studio at 107 Regent St, London, which Jerrard took over in 1884.
30) The first recipient of the Lister medal was W.W. Cheyne, and the Jerrard head was reproduced (embossed in gold) on the cover of his book on Lister (Cheyne 1925).
31) Barrauds Ltd, of 263 Oxford St, was the company founded to take over the business of H.R. Barraud in 1891; the company closed in 1903.
32) NPG x4965 formerly belonged to W.W. Ouless, who painted Lister: see above, ‘Paintings, drawings, sculptures and prints, c.1894–7’.
33) Major R.A. Bickersteth, MB, FRCS, of the Royal Army Medical Corps in 1918; see supplement to London Gazette, 27 June 1918.
34) Lister’s ideas on antisepsis were adopted faster in Germany and the German-speaking world than anywhere else outside Britain.
35) Lister did not officially come to Edinburgh until 1853, and Adamson died in 1848. The sitter does resemble Lister but as he appeared in the 1860s, not the 1840s.

Carol Blackett-Ord