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Later Victorian Portraits Catalogue

James Abbott McNeill Whistler (1834-1903), Painter and etcher

Painter and printmaker; born 11 July 1834 in Lowell, Massachusetts. Early years in St Petersburg, Russia 1843–9, with visits to England; trained at West Point Military Academy, New York 1851 (discharged 1854); studied at Ecole Impériale et Spéciale de Dessin, Paris 1855–6, and then in studio of Charles Gleyre 1856; the ‘French Set’ etchings published 1858; moved to London and began exhibiting at Royal Academy 1859; The White Girl (later Symphony in White No.1; NGA, Washington) exh. London 1862 and Paris 1863; moved to Lindsey Row, Chelsea 1863; Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artist’s Mother (M. d’Orsay, Paris) exh. RA 1872, after which began showing at Grosvenor Gallery; [1] Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (1875; Detroit IA) led to John Ruskin’s accusation that Whistler was a ‘coxcomb’ for asking ‘two hundred guineas for flinging a pot of paint in the public’s face’ (Fors Clavigera, 1877), provoking lawsuit (one of many) and Whistler’s bankruptcy 1878; lived in Venice 1879–80; elected to Society of British Artists 1884, PSBA 1886 (resigned 1888); ‘Ten o’clock Lecture’ on difference between art and nature delivered in London 1885; married Beatrice Godwin 1888; The Gentle Art of Making Enemies publ. 1890; made frequent travels and received many foreign honours; used studio in Paris from 1892 (sold 1901); death of Beatrice Whistler 1896; elected president, International Society of Sculptors, Painters and Gravers 1898; in poor health from c.1900, died 17 July 1903, in Chelsea.

His appearance was provocative and there are many contemporary descriptions. William Merritt Chase on the contradictory aspects to Whistler:

One was Whistler in public – the fop, the cynic, the brilliant, flippant, vain and careless idler; the other was Whistler of the studio – the earnest, tireless, somber worker, a very slave to his art, a bitter foe to all pretense and sham, an embodiment of simplicity almost to the point of diffidence, an incarnation of earnestness and sincerity of purpose. [2]

Arthur Symons on Whistler’s appearance in later life:

I never saw any one so feverishly alive as this little, old man, with his bright, withered cheeks, over which the skin was drawn tightly, his darting eyes, under their prickly bushes of eyebrow, his fantastically-creased black and white curls of hair, his bitter and subtle mouth, and, above all, his exquisite hands, never at rest. [3]

The collector Arthur Jerome Eddy – who sat to Whistler in 1894 – commented on the inadequacy of Whistler’s iconography:

Nearly every sketch, drawing or portrait of Whistler gives some phase of his many-sided personality, but not one – not even those by himself – gives anything like an adequate conception. He was a man most difficult to place on canvas. He could not be grasped and held long enough. He himself tried it, but with only moderate success. Others tried and failed completely – that is, failed to portray him at his best; for that matter no one who has ever drawn or painted him did so when he was at his best, for those moments only came in the seclusion of his own studio, when, alone with model or sitter, he worked absolutely oblivious to everything but his art. No man is at his best when posing for photograph, sketch or portrait, and Whistler was farther from being an exception to this rule than most others. He knew too well what a portrait should be to feel the indifference which is essential to a perfectly natural pose. Consequently, while few men were better known by sight in Paris and London, scarce anyone knew him as he was – the most profoundly serious, conscientious, and consistent artist of his day and generation. [4]

Carol Blackett-Ord

Footnotesback to top

1) Whistler exhibited at the RA 1859–65, 1867, 1870, 1872 and 1879 (one print). He exhibited at the Grosvenor Gallery 1877–9 and 1881–4.
2) Chase 1910, p.222.
3) Symons 1906, p.124.
4) Eddy 1903, pp.225–6.

Referencesback to top

Adler 1915
Adler, E., Portraitures of James McNeill Whistler, exh. cat., Memorial Gallery, Rochester, NY, privately printed, 1915.

Bacher 1907
Bacher, O.H., ‘Stories of Whistler’, The Century Magazine, vol.74, no.10, May 1907, pp.100–11.

Bacher 1908
Bacher, O.H., With Whistler in Venice, New York, 1908.

Bailey 1996
Bailey, K., ‘Leighton – Public and Private Lives’, Apollo, February 1996, pp.22–6.

Beal 2002
Beal, G.W.J., American Beauty: Paintings from the Detroit Institute of Arts, 1770–1920, London, 2002.

Beerbohm 1904
Beerbohm, M., The Poets’ Corner, London, 1904.

Beerbohm 1907
Beerbohm, M., A Book of Caricatures, London, 1907.

Beerbohm 1913
Beerbohm, M., Fifty Caricatures, London, 1913.

Beerbohm 1921
Beerbohm, M., A Survey, London, 1921.

Beerbohm 1922
Beerbohm, M., Rossetti and His Circle, London, 1922.

Beerbohm 1943
Beerbohm, M., The Poets’ Corner, [London, 1904] enlarged ed., 1943.

Beerbohm 1958
Beerbohm, M., Max’s Nineties: Drawings 1892–1899, London, 1958.

Beerbohm 1987
Beerbohm, M., Rossetti and His Circle, [London, 1922] repr. with additions, New Haven and London, 1987.

Bénédite 1905
Bénédite, L., L’Oeuvre de James McNeill Whistler, Paris, 1905.

Boughton 1903
Boughton, G.H., ‘A Few of the Various Whistlers I have Known: Reminiscences of Whistler’, The Studio, vol.30, no.129, 1903, pp.208–18.

Bowdoin 1902
Bowdoin, W.G., James McNeill Whistler, London, 1902.

Brewster 1917
Brewster, W.S., Catalogue of an Exhibition of Whistleriana, privately printed, Chicago, 1917.

Brinton 1908
Brinton, C., Modern Artists, New York, 1908.

Burke 1980
Burke, D.B., American Paintings in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 3 vols, New York, 1980.

Butler 1971
Butler, J.T., ‘The American Way with Art’, Connoisseur, vol.178, November 1971, pp.208–13.

Callow 2000
Callow, S., Oscar Wilde and His Circle (NPG Character Sketches series), London, 2000.

Calloway 1998
Calloway, S., Aubrey Beardsley, London, 1998.

Calloway & Orr 2011
Calloway, S., and L.F. Orr, eds, The Cult of Beauty: The Aesthetic Movement 1860–1900, exh. cat., Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 2011.

Cardona 1951
Cardona, E., Boldini nel suo tempo, Milan, 1951.

Cardona 1952
Cardona, E., Boldini: Parisien d’Italie, Paris, 1952.

Chase 1910
Chase, W.M., ‘The Two Whistlers: Recollections of a Summer with the Great Etcher’, Century Magazine, vol.57 (June 1910), pp.219–26.

Conway 1912
Conway, J.J., Footprints of Famous Americans in Paris, London and New York, 1912.

Crane 1911
Crane, W., William Morris to Whistler, London, 1911.

Cross 1992
Cross, T., Artists and Bohemians: 100 Years with the Chelsea Arts Club, London, 1992.

Cuneo 1906a
Cuneo, C., ‘Whistler’s Academy of Painting’, The Century Magazine, New York, vol.73, no.1, November 1906, pp.19–28.

Cuneo 1906b
Cuneo, C., ‘Whistler’s Academy of Painting: Some Parisian Recollections’, Pall Mall Magazine, vol.38, no.163, November 1906, pp.531–40.

Curry 1984
Curry, D.P., James McNeill Whistler at the Freer Gallery, exh. cat., Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, 1984.

Davids 2000
Davids, R., The Artist as Portrait, exh. cat., Fine Art Society, London, 2000.

Dearden 1999
Dearden, J.S., John Ruskin: A Life in Pictures, Sheffield, 1999.

Dempsey 1966
Dempsey, A., ‘Whistler and Sickert: A Friendship and Its End’, Apollo, vol.80, January 1966, pp.30–37.

Denker 1995
Denker, E., In Pursuit of the Butterfly: Portraits of James McNeill Whistler, exh. cat., National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC, 1995.

Dorment & MacDonald 1994
Dorment, R., and M.F. MacDonald, James McNeill Whistler, exh. cat., Tate Gallery, London, 1994.

Dowdeswell 1887
Dowdeswell, W., ‘Whistler’, Art Journal, April 1887, pp.97–103.

Du Maurier 1951
Du Maurier, D., ed., The Young George Du Maurier: A Selection of his Letters 1860–67, London, 1951.

Du Maurier 1894a
Du Maurier, G., ‘Trilby’, Harper’s New Monthly Magazine (US ed.), February–March 1894.

Du Maurier 1894b
Du Maurier, G., Trilby: A Novel, New York, 1894.

Dunn 1984
Henry Treffry Dunn: Recollections of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and His Circle, or Cheyne Walk Life, ed. R. Mander, Westerham, Kent, 1984 (enlarged ed. of work first published 1904, ed. G. Pedrick).

Duret 1904
Duret, T., Histoire de J. McN. Whistler et de son Oeuvre, Paris, 1904.

Eddy 1903
Eddy, A.J., Recollections and Impressions of James A. McNeill Whistler, Philadelphia and London, 1903.

Eden 1933
Eden, T., The Tribulations of a Baronet, London, 1933.

Farr 1893
Farr, F., The Dancing Faun, London, 1893.

Foster 1980
Foster, K.A., ‘American Drawings, Watercolours and Prints’, Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, vol.37, no.4, Spring 1980, pp.1–52.

Fredeman 2002–10
Fredeman, W.E., ed., The Correspondence of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 9 vols, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002–10.

Gallatin 1912
Gallatin, A.E., Whistler’s Pastels and Other Modern Profiles, New York, 1912.

Gallatin 1913a
Gallatin, A.E., The Portraits and Caricatures of James McNeill Whistler: An Iconography, with twenty examples, ten hitherto unpublished, London and New York, 1913.

Gallatin 1913b
Gallatin, A.E., ‘Whistler: The Self-Portraits in Oil’, Art in America, vol.1, July 1913, pp.151–8.

Gallatin 1915
Gallatin, A.E., ‘Notes on Some Rare Portraits of Whistler’, Print-Collector’s Quarterly, vol.5, no.4, December 1915, pp.433–43.

Gallatin 1916
Gallatin, A.E., Notes on Some Rare Portraits of Whistler, London and New York, 1916.

Gallatin 1918
Gallatin, A.E., Portraits of Whistler: A Critical Study and an Iconography, London and New York, 1918.

Gallatin 1944
Gallatin, A.E., Sir Max Beerbohm: Bibliographical Notes, Cambridge, MA, 1944.

Getscher 1986
Getscher, R., and P.G. Marks, James McNeill Whistler and John Singer Sargent, New York and London, 1986.

Gray 2004
Gray, A., The Edwardians: Secrets and Desires, exh. cat., National Gallery of Australia, 2004.

Greaves 1984
Walter Greaves, 1846–1930, and the Goupil Gallery: Paintings, Drawings and Etchings, exh. cat., Michael Parkin Fine Art, London, 1984.

Guthrie 1903–4
Guthrie, J.J., ‘By the Way’, Books and Bookplates, vol.4, no.3, 1903–4, pp.141–6.

Guzzi 1967
Guzzi, V., Il Ritratto nella pittura italiana dell’Ottocento, Milan, 1967.

Hall 1997
Hall, N.J., Max Beerbohm Caricatures, New Haven and London, 1997.

Hall 2002
Hall, N.J., Max Beerbohm: A Kind of Life, New Haven and London, 2002.

Harris 1976
Harris, E., ‘Carlo Pellegrini: Man and “Ape”’, Apollo, vol.103, January 1976, pp.53–7.

Harris & Ormond 1976
Harris, E., and R. Ormond, Vanity Fair: An Exhibition of Original Cartoons, exh. cat., NPG, London, 1976.

Hart-Davis 1972
Hart-Davis, R., A Catalogue of the Caricatures of Max Beerbohm, London, 1972.

Heseltine 1914
Drawings and Paintings by Artists of Norfolk and Suffolk in the Collection of J.P. H[eseltine]., privately printed, London, 1914.

Hinshaw 1910
Hinshaw, I.C., ‘Whistler’s First Drawings: Unpublished Sketches Made at West Point’, The Century Magazine, September 1910, pp.735–41.

Houfe 1996
Houfe, S., The Dictionary of 19th-Century British Book Illustrators and Caricaturists, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 1996 (rev. ed. of Houfe 1978).

Howe 1959
Howe, Thomas Carr, Sargent and Boldini, London, 1959.

Hubbard 1902
Hubbard, E., Little Journeys to the Homes of Eminent Artists: Whistler, 2 vols, East Aurora, NY, 1902.

Ingamells 1969
Ingamells, J., ‘Greaves and Whistler’, Apollo, March 1969, pp.224–5.

Jackson 1912
Jackson, H., All Manner of Folk, London, 1912.

Jerrold 1894
Jerrold, W., ed., Bon-Mots of Samuel Foote and Theodore Hook, London, 1894.

Jopling 1925
Jopling, L., Twenty Years of My Life, 1867 to 1887, London, 1925.

Juillien 1909
Juillien, A., Fantin-Latour: sa vie et ses amitiés, lettres inédites et souvenirs personnels, Paris, 1909.

Kenin 1979
Kenin, R., Return to Albion: Americans in England, 1760–1940, New York, 1979 (to accompany exh., National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC).

Kennedy 1910
Kennedy, E.G., The Etched Work of Whistler, Illustrated by Reproductions in Collotype of the Different States of the Plates, New York, 1910.

Kennedy Gallery 1970
Art in Prints, exh. cat., Kennedy Gallery, New York, 1970.

Lavery, Ludovici & Pennell 1905
Lavery, J., A. Ludovici and J. Pennell, Memorial Exhibition of the Works of the Late James McNeill Whistler, First President of the International Society of Sculptors, Painters, and Gravers, exh. cat., New Gallery, Regent Street, London, 1905.

Lochnan 1984
Lochnan, K.A., The Etchings of James McNeill Whistler, New Haven and London, 1984.

London 1976
Artists and Writers: An Exhibition of Watercolours, Drawings and Etchings, exh. cat., Michael Parkin Gallery, London, 1976.

London 1979
The Mark of Whistler: James McNeill Whistler’s Influence on Graphics, exh. cat., Michael Parkin Fine Art, London, 1979.

London 1981
A Look at British Printmakers, 1860–1940: An Exhibition of Etchings, Lithographs and Woodcuts, exh. cat., Parkin Gallery, London, 1981.

London 1983
Artists of the Yellow Book and the Circle of Oscar Wilde, exh. cat., London, Clarendon Gallery and Parkin Gallery, London, 1983.

Maas 1984
Maas, J., The Victorian Art World in Photographs, London, 1984.

McClelland 1978
McClelland, D.R., Where Shadows Live: Alice Pike Barney and her Friends, exh. cat., National Collection of Fine Arts, Washington, DC, 1978.

MacDonald 1984
MacDonald, M.F., Notes, Harmonies, Nocturnes, exh. cat., M. Knoedler & Co., New York, 1984.

MacDonald 1995
MacDonald, M.F., James McNeill Whistler: Drawings, Pastels and Watercolours. A Catalogue Raisonné, New Haven and London, 1995.

MacDonald 2003
MacDonald, M.F., ed., Whistler’s Mother: An American Icon, London, 2003.

MacDonald, Galassi & Ribeiro 2003
MacDonald, M.F., S.G. Galassi and A. Ribeiro, with P. de Montfort, Whistler, Women and Fashion, New Haven and London, 2003 (to accompany exh., The Frick Collection, New York).

MacFall 1905
MacFall, C.H.C., Whistler: Butterfly, Wasp, Wit, Master of the Arts, Enigma, Edinburgh and London, 1905.

Malley 2011
Malley, A., ‘Staples, Sir Robert Ponsonby, twelfth baronet (1853–1943)’, ODNB, Oxford, online ed., May 2011.

Mansfield 1909
Mansfield, H., A Descriptive Catalogue of the Etchings and Dry-Points of James Abbott McNeill Whistler, Chicago, 1909.

Mather 1945
Mather, F.J., ‘A Sketchbook of 1875 and 1876 by Homer D. Martin’, Record of the Museum of Historic Art, Princeton University, vol.4, no.1, Spring 1945, pp.5–8.

Menpes 1904
Menpes, M., Whistler as I Knew Him, London and New York, 1904.

Merrill 1992
Merrill, L., A Pot of Paint: Aesthetics on Trial in Whistler v. Ruskin, Washington, DC, and London, 1992.

Merrill 1998
Merrill, L., The Peacock Room: A Cultural Biography, New Haven and London, 1998.

Mullaly 1980
Mullaly, H., ‘From Courts to Commons’, Apollo, vol.111, April 1980, pp.331–2.

Nicholson 1898
Nicholson, W., London Types, London, 1898.

Nicholson 1899
Nicholson, W., Twelve Portraits, 1st series, London, 1899.

Noon 1979
Noon, P.J., English Portrait Drawing Miniatures, New Haven, 1979.

Northrop 1904
Northrop, W.B., With Pen and Camera, London, 1904.

NPG CIC 2004
Saywell, D., and J. Simon, National Portrait Gallery: Complete Illustrated Catalogue, NPG, London, 2004 (first edition 1981).

Ormond 1969
Ormond, L., George Du Maurier, London, 1969.

Ormond 1966
Ormond, R., ‘Private Life of a Victorian Painter: John Gilbert’, Country Life, vol.140, 25 August 1966, pp.462–5.

Pearson 1952
Pearson, H., The Man Whistler, London, 1952.

Pennell 1920
Pennell, E.R., The Life of James McNeill Whistler, New Haven and London, 1920.

Pennell & Pennell 1908
Pennell, E.R., and J. Pennell, The Life of James McNeill Whistler, 2 vols, London, 1908.

Pennell & Pennell 1911
Pennell, E.R., and J. Pennell, The Life of James McNeill Whistler, 2 vols, London, 5th ed., rev., 1911.

Pennell & Pennell 1912
Pennell, E.R., and J. Pennell, ‘Whistler as Decorator’, The Century Magazine, vol.83, February 1912, pp.500–513.

Pennell & Pennell 1921
Pennell, E.R., and J. Pennell, The Whistler Journal, Philadelphia, 1921.

Phythian 1908
Phythian, J.E., Fifty Years of Modern Painting: Corot to Sargent, London, 1908.

Pocock 1970
Pocock, T., Chelsea Reach: The Brutal Friendship of Whistler and Walter Greaves, London, 1970.

Prandi 1970
Prandi, D., Giovanni Boldini: l’opera incisa, Reggio Emilia, 1970.

Pressley 1972
Pressley, N.D., ‘Whistler in America: An Album of Early Drawings’, Metropolitan Museum Journal, vol.5, 1972, pp.125–54.

G.A. Reynolds 1984
Reynolds, G.A., Giovanni Boldini and Society Portraiture 1880–1920, exh. cat., Grey Art Gallery and Study Center, New York University, New York, 1984.

Rogers 1989
Rogers, M., Camera Portraits, exh. cat., NPG, London, 1989.

Roof 1917
Roof, K.M., The Life and Art of William Merritt Chase, New York, 1917.

Rossetti 1903
Rossetti, W.M., ed., Rossetti Papers, 1862–1870, London, 1903.

Rothenstein 1926
Rothenstein, J., The Portrait Drawings of William Rothenstein 1889–1925, London, 1926.

Rothenstein 1931–2
Rothenstein, W., Men and Memories: Recollections of William Rothenstein, 2 vols, London, 1931–2.

Sato, Lambourne & Holland 2000
Sato, T., L. Lambourne, M. Holland and others, The Wilde Years: Oscar Wilde and the Art of His Time, exh. cat., Barbican Art Gallery, London, 2000.

Shaw 1968
Shaw, E., ‘Four Years with Whistler’, Apollo, vol.87, no.73, March 1968, pp.198–201.

Spencer 1969
Spencer, R., James McNeill Whistler 1834–1903, exh. cat., Nationalgalerie, Berlin, 1969.

Spencer 2004
Spencer, R., ‘Whistler, James Abbott McNeill (1834–1903)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; online ed., May 2010.

Stetz 2007
Stetz, M.D., Facing the Late Victorians: Portraits of Writers and Artists from the Mark Samuels Lasner Collection, Newark, DE, 2007.

Stubbs 1948
Stubbs, B.A., Paintings, Pastels, Drawings, Prints, and Copper Plates by and attributed to American and European Artists, together with a list of original Whistleriana in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1948.

Sturgis et al. 2006
Sturgis, A., and others, Rebels and Martyrs: The Image of the Artist in the Nineteenth Century, exh. cat., London, 2006.

Sutton 1966b
Sutton, D., James McNeill Whistler: Paintings, Etchings, Pastels and Watercolours, London, 1966.

Symons 1906
Symons, A., Studies in Seven Arts, London, 1906.

Taylor 1986
Taylor, G., ed., Byam Shaw: A Selection of Paintings and Book Illustrations, exh. cat., Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 1986.

Tedeschi & Salvesen 1998
Tedeschi, M., and B. Salvesen, Songs on Stone: James McNeill Whistler and the Art of Lithography, Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies, vol.24, no.1, 1998 (to accompany exh., Art Institute of Chicago and National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, 1998–1999).

Thomas 1874
Thomas, R., A Catalogue of the Etchings and Drypoints of James Abbott McNeill Whistler, privately printed, London, 1874.

Thorpe 1935
Thorpe, J., English Illustration: The Nineties, London, 1935.

Van Devanter & Frankenstein 1974
Van Devanter, A.C., and A.V. Frankenstein, American Self-Portraits 1670–1973, exh. cat., International Exhibitions Foundation, Washington, 1974.

Vann 2004
Vann, P., Face to Face: British Self-Portraits in the 20th Century, Bristol, 2004.

Victoria and Albert 1957
Dept of Engraving, Illustration and Design and Department of Paintings, Accessions 1948, vol.2, Henry Herbert Harrod Bequest, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1957.

Walkley 1994
Walkley, G., Artists’ Houses in London 1764–1914, Aldershot, 1994.

Wallis 1947
Wallis, N., ed., Fin de Siècle: A Selection of Late 19th-Century Literature and Art, London, 1947.

Ward 1915
Ward, L., Forty Years of ‘Spy’, London, 1915.

Warner 1997
Warner, M., The Victorians: British Painting 1837–1901, exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, 1997.

Way 1903
Way, T.R., ‘Mr. Whistler as a Lithographer’, The Studio, vol.30, no.127, October 1903, pp.10–21.

Way 1912
Way, T.R., Memories of James McNeill Whistler, London and New York, 1912.

Way & Dennis 1903
Way, T.R., and G.R. Dennis, The Art of James McNeill Whistler: An Appreciation, London, 1903.

Wedd et al. 2001
Wedd, K., with L. Peltz and C. Ross, Creative Quarters: The Art World in London from 1700 to 2000, exh. cat., Museum of London, 2001.

Wedmore 1886
Wedmore, F., Whistler’s Etchings: A Study and a Catalogue, London, 1886.

Whistler 1899
Whistler, J.M., Eden versus Whistler: The Baronet and the Butterfly. A Valentine with a Verdict, Paris and New York, 1899.

Whistler 1904
Whistler, J.M., Mr Whistler’s Ten O’Clock, Chicago, 1904.

Whistler Correspondence
The Correspondence of James McNeill Whistler, 1855–1903, ed. M.F. MacDonald, P. de Montfort and N. Thorp, including The Correspondence of Anna McNeill Whistler, 1855–1880, ed. G. Toutziari, University of Glasgow, online ed., 2003–10

Whistler Etchings Catalogue
M.F. MacDonald, with G. Petri, M. Hausberg and J. Meacock, James McNeill Whistler: The Etchings: A Catalogue Raisonné, University of Glasgow, online ed., 2011

Whiteley 1948
Whiteley, D. Pepys, George Du Maurier, London, 1948.

Wilmerding 1975
Wilmerding, J., Audubon, Homer, Whistler and Nineteenth-century America, New York, 1975.

Wilson 1983
Wilson, S., Beardsley, Oxford, rev. ed., 1983.

Wilson & Zatlin 1998
Wilson, S., and L. Zatlin, Aubrey Beardsley: A Centenary Tribute, exh. cat., Kawasaki City Museum, Kanagawa, 1998.

Wittmann 1976
Wittmann, O., The Toledo Museum of Art: European Paintings, Toledo, 1976.

Wood 1907a
Wood, T.M., ‘Drawings and Sketches by Modern Masters’, The Studio, vol.39, January 1907, pp.334–45.

Young, Macdonald & Spencer 1980
Young, A.M., M. MacDonald and R. Spencer, with H. Miles, The Paintings of James McNeill Whistler, 2 vols, New Haven and London, 1980.

Young 1962
Young, M.S., ‘Revaluations I: “The Colonel” Reconsidered’, Apollo, vol.75, NS, 1962, pp.189–95.

Young 1968a
Young, M.S., ‘Romantic Art from Britain’, Apollo, vol.87, April 1968, pp.300–305.

Young 1968b
Young, M.S., ‘Youth and Old Age’, Apollo, vol.88, October 1968, pp.303–7.