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Early Victorian Portraits Catalogue

King William IV (1765-1837), Reigned 1830-37

This is a selective iconography, and only includes the more important portrait types. Popular prints and caricatures are excluded (examples in NPG and British Museum). 'Millar' refers to Oliver Millar, The Later Georgian Pictures in the Collection of H. M. The Queen (1969), 2 vols, and 'Oppé' to A. P. Oppé, English Drawings ... In the Collection of H. M. The King at Windsor Castle (1950).

c.1767
Painting by A. Ramsay. Royal Collection.
Millar (999), reproduced. This picture was previously called the Duke of Kent by Zoffany. Related studies for the composition are in the National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh.

1770
'George III, Queen Charlotte and their Six Eldest Children' by J. Zoffany. Royal Collection.
Millar (1201), reproduced. Engraved by R. Earlom, published R. Sayer, 1771 (example in British Museum). An oil sketch is also in the Royal Collection, Millar (1202), reproduced. Another version, possibly a copy, was in the McAlpin Hotel, New York, 1920.

Engraving by Johnson, published R. Marshall, 1770 (example in British Museum).

c.1770
Painting by J. Zoffany (with Princess Charlotte). Royal Collection.
Millar (1204), reproduced.

c.1772
'The Establishment of the Academy of Arts' by G. Manini. Exhibited Free Society of Artists, 1772 (113).

c.1773
'Queen Charlotte with Members of her Family' by J. Zoffany. Royal Collection.
Millar (1207), reproduced. Exhibited RA, 1773 (320).

1778
Painting by Sir B. West (with his brother, the Duke of Kent). Royal Collection.
Millar (1144), reproduced. Exhibited RA, 1780 (7). A detail of William IV was engraved and published by V. Green, 1780 (example in NPG).

1779
'Queen Charlotte' (with her family in the background) by Sir B. West. Royal Collection.
Millar (1139), reproduced. A variant version of 1782 is also in the Royal Collection, Millar (1140).

c.1780
Engraving by J. Collyer, after T. Stothard (as a midshipman of the 'Prince George') (example in NPG), for Harvey's Naval History.

Engraving by F. Bartolozzi and P. Sandby, after Sir B. West (as a midshipman of the 'Prince George') (example in British Museum). The same picture was lithographed by W. Day, published Ackermann, 1832 (example in NPG).

1781
Anonymous engraving, published 1781 (example in NPG), for the London Magazine.

c.1781
Painting by T. Gainsborough. Collection of Mrs Etienne Boegner, USA.
From the collection of the Duke of Cambridge. Engraved by G. Dupont (example in British Museum). A secondary version of 1782 is in the Royal Collection (plate 993), exhibited RA, 1783 (134), listed by Millar (781), where both portraits are reproduced.

1783
Anonymous engraving, published J. Walker, 1783 (example in NPG).

1785
Drawing called William IV by J. Downman. Royal Collection.
Oppé, p 44 (190).

c.1785
Drawing by O. Humphry. Reproduced G. C. Williamson, Life and Works of Ozias Humphry (1918), facing p 42, when in the Turner collection.

1787
'The Royal Family, 1787', engraving by J. Murphy, after T. Stothard, published J. Jeffryes, 1794 (example in NPG).

Wedgwood medallion by J. Lochee. Wedgwood Museum, Barlaston.
Exhibited Wedgwood, Kenwood, 1954 (154). Two Wedgwood medallions by J. Flaxman are reproduced M. Jonas, Notes of an Art Collector (1908), p 4.

1788
Anonymous engraving, published R. Morison, Perth, 1788 (example in NPG).

Engraving by E. Scott, after a drawing by Sir T. Lawrence, itself based on a bust by J. Lochee,
published Scott, 1788 (example in NPG). A model by J. Lochee, presumably for a bust, was exhibited RA, 1786 (302).

1790
Engraving by I. Salliar, after R. Cosway, published Cosway, 1790 (example in British Museum).

c.1790
Miniature by P. Jean. Exhibited RA, 1790 (326).

1791
Miniature by R. Cosway. Royal Collection.
Exhibited Royal House of Guelph, New Gallery, 1891 (362), and Kings and Queens, RA, 1953 (267), reproduced 'Illustrated Souvenir', p 6. Another version of the same type, except that the sitter is in Garter robes, is in the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, probably the miniature formerly in the collection of the Duke of Cambridge, reproduced G. C. Williamson, Richard Cosway, R.A. (1897), facing p 1, sold Christie's, 10 June 1904 (lot 321). There are two versions of an earlier miniature type by Cosway: 1. Collection of Viscount Hood (mounted in a gold snuff-box), exhibited Royal Gifts, Christie's, 1961-2 (28). 2. Reproduced G. C. Williamson, Catalogue of ... Miniatures ... of the Duke of Cumberland (1914), plate XX. There is an engraving by E. Scriven, after a different miniature by Cosway (example in NPG). Two miniatures by Cosway were exhibited Royal House of Guelph, New Gallery, 1891 (373), lent by the then Prince of Wales, and (414), lent by the Earl of Portarlington; another was exhibited Royal Naval Exhibition, 1891 (1861), lent by the Duke of Edinburgh; another (as a midshipman) was in the Duke of Cambridge's Sale, Christie's, 10 June 1904 (lot 318); another is listed by Williamson, Richard Cosway, R.A. (1897), p 109, as then in the collection of the Hon William Fielding. A drawing attributed to Cosway is in the Royal Collection, listed by Oppé, p 37 (153).

c.1791
Painting by J. Hoppner. Royal Collection (the picture was in the Carlton House fire, and is in very poor condition). Millar (835). Engraved by E. Hodges, published W. Dickinson, 1792 (example in British Museum). Presumably the portrait exhibited RA, 1791 (98); another portrait by Hoppner was exhibited RA, 1792 (195). A half-length copy is at Clarence House.

1792
Engraving by C. Warren, after R. Corbould, published C. Cooke, 1792 (example in NPG).

1793
Painting by Sir T. Lawrence. Collection of Lord de L'Isle and Dudley.
Exhibited RA, 1793 (63), and Royal House of Guelph, New Gallery, 1891 (87). A replica is at Upton House (National Trust), exhibited Kings and Queens, RA, 1953 (265), reproduced 'Illustrated Souvenir'; another version is in the collection of Major Goff, reproduced Country Life, XCIII (1943), 74.

'Introduction of the Duchess of York to the Royal Family', engraving by J. Murphy, after R. Livesay, published E. Walker, 1793 (example in British Museum).

1794
Engraving by C. Knight, after J. Hoppner, published 1794 (example in British Museum).

1795
Caricature etching by J. Gillray (entitled 'Naval Eloquence'), published H. Humphrey, 1795 (example in NPG).

c.1796
Painting by J. Hoppner. Exhibited RA, 1796 (173).

c.1797
Miniature by R. Bowyer. Exhibited RA, 1797 (1043).

1800
Engraving by J. Chapman, published 1800 (example in NPG).

c.1800
Paintings by Sir M. A. Shee (see NPG 2199).

Miniature by H. Hone. Christie's, 29 November 1966 (lot 23).
Reproduced in the sale catalogue, where it is wrongly identified as George IV.

Miniature called William IV by A. Robertson. Collection of J. B. Roberts.

1804
'Woburn Sheepshearing' by G. Garrard. Collection of the Duke of Bedford, Woburn.
Engraved by J. C. Stadler and T. Morris, published G. Garrard, 1811 (example in British Museum).

1806
Engraving by T. Cheesman, after Sir W. Beechey, published E. Harding, 1806 (example in NPG), for 'Portraits of the Whole of the Royal Family'.

1809
Miniature by R. Cosway. Royal Collection.
Sketched by G. Scharf, 'TSB Windsor' (NPG archives), III, 28.

c.1809
Drawing by H. Edridge. Exhibited RA, 1809 (491).

c.1810
Miniature by A. Robertson. Reproduced Letters and Papers of Andrew Robertson, edited Emily Robertson (c.1898), facing p 176. Possibly the miniature by Robertson exhibited Exhibition of Portrait Miniatures, Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1889, p 36 (49), and Royal House of Guelph, New Gallery, 1891 (991), lent by Jeffery Whitehead.

c.1813
Drawing by H. Edridge. Exhibited RA, 1813 (606).

1818
Two miniatures by P. Fischer. Royal Collection.

1819
Miniature by S. T. Roche. Duke of Cambridge's Sale, Christie's, 13 June 1904 (lot 442).

1820
'House of Lords, 1820' by Sir G. Hayter (NPG 999).
Study (NPG 1695J).

1821
'Banquet at the Coronation of George IV' by G. Jones. Royal Collection.
Millar (867), reproduced. Exhibited British Institution, 1823 (42).

Engraving by W. Skelton, published Skelton, 1821 (example in British Museum).

c.1825-8
Drawing attributed to Sir G. Hayter (NPG 1632).

1827
Miniature by J. Holmes(?). Collection of Mrs Hore-Ruthven.
Recorded by J. Steegman, Portraits in Welsh Houses (1962), II, 11. Possibly the portrait lithographed by Holmes, published Colnaghi and Holmes (example in British Museum).

Plaster medallion by J. Henning. Scottish NPG.

Engraving by W. Ward junior, after A. Wivell, published W. Sams, 1827 (example in NPG). Engraved again by W. Holl, published W. Sams, 1829 (example in NPG). There is a lithograph by M. Gauci, and an anonymous engraving, published W. Sams, after a similar type, save that the sitter is in civil not naval uniform (examples in NPG).

Engraving by S. Freeman, after W. M. Craig, published E. Orme, 1827 (example in British Museum).

Anonymous lithograph, published 1827 (example in NPG), for subscribers to the Weekly Times.

c.1827
Painting by Sir T. Lawrence. Royal Collection.
Millar (877), reproduced. Exhibited RA, 1829 (57). Engraved by T. Hodgetts, published Colnaghi, 1831 (example in NPG). A half-length version of 1830 (showing the sitter in masonic robes) is in the collection of the Prince of Wales Masonic Lodge. A chalk study is in the collection of the Duke of Richmond, reproduced Millar, presumably the drawing in the Lawrence Sale, Christie's, 19 June 1830 (lot 406), lithographed by F. C. Lewis, published Colnaghi, 1831, and anonymously engraved, published Colburn and Bentley, 1831 (examples in NPG). Related drawing: Sotheby's, 12 February 1964 (lot 120), as by Wilkie, bought Folio Society. An enamel after Lawrence by J. Lee was exhibited RA, 1832 (487).

1829
Lithograph by A. Dubois Drahonet (drawn from life, at Dieppe, 1829), published Paris (example in NPG).

1830
Engraving by W. Say, after M. W. Sharp, published W. Sams, 1830 (example in British Museum).

Engraving by D. Lucas, after R. Bowyer, published Bowyer, 1830 (example in British Museum).

Engraving by W. Nicholas, after A. M. Huffam, published S. Hollyer, 1830 (example in British Museum).

c.1830
Paintings by H. Dawe (see NPG 1163).

Painting by A. Morton. Exhibited RA, 1830 (182).
Presumably the portrait engraved by S. W. Reynolds, published Colnaghi, 1832 (example in British Museum). There are several other variant versions of this type, including one at the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, and another at London University. According to Colonel C. Field, Britain's Sea-Soldiers (1924), I, 274, William IV presented five full-length portraits of himself by Morton to each of five divisions of the Royal Marines, in 1831. A lithograph by R. J. Lane, after a drawing by Morton, then owned by Viscountess Falkland, was published J. Dickinson, 1831 (example in NPG). An enamel miniature by H. Bone, after Morton, was exhibited RA, 1831 (464).

1831
'The Opening of London Bridge, 1831' by G. Jones. Exhibited RA, 1832 (180).
Key reproduced A. T. Bolton, The Portrait of Sir John Soane (1927), facing p 474.

Coronation medal by W. Wyon. Reproduced Connoisseur, III (1903), 174.

'Coronation of William IV' by R. B. Davis. Royal Collection.
Millar (728).

Marble bust by Sir F. Chantrey. Collection of Lord de L'Isle and Dudley.
Possibly the bust exhibited RA, 1831 (1190), listed in Chantrey's 'Ledger' (Ms, Royal Academy), p 226. Related drawings, one of 1830 (NPG 316a (141, 142) above).

Statue by W. M. Gardner. Cheltenham.

Miniature bronze bust by S. Parker. Scottish NPG.

Engraving by B. Holl, after A. Wivell, published T. Kelly, 1831 (example in NPG).

c.1831
Painting by Sir W. Beechey. Trinity House, London.
Exhibited RA, 1831 (65). Other portraits by or attributed to Beechey are owned by the Admiralty, the Houses of Parliament and the Novia Scotia Legislative Library. A full-length painting (in robes) was in the Beechey Sale, Christie's, 11 June 1836 (lot 72). Another was exhibited Royal Naval Exhibition, Chelsea, 1891 (379), lent by the Baroness Burdett-Coutts. Beechey exhibited portraits of William IV RA, 1832 (197), and 1833 (71). A miniature by Bone, after Beechey, was exhibited RA, 1833 (497), and another of 1831 exhibited Royal House of Guelph, New Gallery, 1891 (990), lent by J. Whitehead.

1832-4
Painting by S. Lane. Houses of Parliament.

1832
Painting by J. Simpson. Brighton Art Gallery.
Exhibited RA, 1833 (317).

'Signing of the Reform Bill', marble relief by Sir F. Chantrey. Collection of the Earl of Leicester, Holkham.

Bust by Sir F. Chantrey. Commissioned by the Goldsmiths Company. Listed in Chantrey's 'Ledger' (MS, Royal Academy), p 229. Another bust by Chantrey of the same year, commissioned by the King and given to the Earl of Munster, is listed p 232.

Painting by Sir D. Wilkie (in garter robes). Royal Collection (Waterloo Chamber, Windsor).
Millar (1185), reproduced. Exhibited RA, 1832 (71). According to C. H. Collins Baker, Catalogue of the Principal Pictures in the Royal Collection at Windsor Castle (1937), p 312, another version was presented to the Scottish Hospital, 1833. A three-quarter length replica is in the Toledo Museum of Art, and a head and shoulders replica in the City Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham (a signature and date, '1838', on the latter picture may not be genuine). There is a version of 1835 in the Examination Schools, Oxford. A copy was in the Ormond collection (art market, 1954). Studies are in the Royal Collection, exhibited Wilkie Exhibition, RA, 1958 (86); collection of Brinsley Ford; and formerly collection of John Woodward. A related unfinished oil sketch is in the collection of Lord de L'Isle and Dudley, exhibited Old Masters, British Institution, 1842 (71). A water-colour by Wilkie in the Tate Gallery, and a sketch in the Royal Collection, both showing William IV in garter robes (the former, with Queen Adelaide), may represent a project for a double state portrait. A painting by Wilkie was exhibited RA, 1837 (67). For other portraits see 1833 and c.1833 below.

Two busts by J. Francis. Freemasons Hall, and the Mansion House, London.
One of these was exhibited RA, 1832 (1150).

c.1832
'William IV Holding a Council', lithograph by J. Knight, published Knight (example in British Museum).

Bust by J. C. F. Rossi and two models for statues. Exhibited RA, 1832 (1174).

1833
Painting by Sir D. Wilkie (in the uniform of the Grenadier Guards). Wellington Museum, Apsley
House, London (plates 1003, 1004). Exhibited RA, 1833 (140), and Wilkie Exhibition, RA, 1958 (35).

Painting by Sir M. A. Shee. Royal Collection.
Millar (1084), reproduced. Exhibited RA, 1834 (67) and SKM, 1868 (320). A replica of this portrait is in the Royal Academy, exhibited RA, 1835 (63), and British Portraits, RA, 1956-7 (524). One of the two versions was engraved by C. Turner, published Colnaghi, 1836 (example in British Museum); a half-length detail of the portrait was also engraved by Turner, published Colnaghi, 1836 (example in NPG). A copy of the Royal Academy portrait is in the Royal Collection, Millar (1089). Another portrait of William IV by Shee was exhibited RA, 1838 (121).

Water-colour by Sir D. Wilkie (seated, in uniform). Collection of Mrs T. G. Winter. Exhibited Wilkie Exhibition, RA, 1958 (85).

c.1833
Painting by Sir D. Wilkie (in civil costume). Scottish NPG.
The head is similar to that in the Apsley House portrait. Another similar portrait is at Slane Castle; see Millar (1185).

1834
Bust by Sir F. Chantrey. Commissioned by Lord Holland.
Listed in the artist's 'Ledger' (MS, Royal Academy), p 241.

Marble bust by S. Joseph. Collection of Lord de L'Isle and Dudley.
Presumably the bust exhibited RA, 1835 (1052).

Plaster statuette by J. P. Dantan. Musée Carnavalet, Paris.
Reproduced J. Seligman, Figures of Fun (1957), plate 11.

c.1834
Painting by J. Simpson. United Service Club, London.
Exhibited RA, 1834 (284). Another painting by Simpson is in the National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin.

1835
Miniature by an unknown artist. Recorded in the collection of R. Harvey Mason, Nector Hall, 1908,
by Prince F. D. Singh, Portraits in Norfolk Houses (1927), II, 95.

Marble bust by Sir F. Chantrey. Greenwich Palace Chapel.

Marble bust by S. Joseph. United Service Club, London.

1836
Engraving by R. Woodman, after K. Meadows, published Lamb and Son, 1836 (example in British
Museum).

c.1836
Painting by J. H. Carter (with Sir Charles Morgan, in Windsor Park). Collection of Mrs D. L. Corkery, Southerndown. Recorded by J. Steegman, Portraits in Welsh Houses (1962), II, 101.
Lithographed by M. Gauci (example in British Museum). Several other versions of the picture exist.

Miniature by Sir W. J. Newton. Exhibited RA, 1836 (788).
Possibly the miniature exhibited Royal House of Guelph, New Gallery, 1891 (1884), lent by the Earl of Mayo.

1837
Miniature by Sir W. J. Newton. Duke of Cambridge's Sale, Christie's, 10 June 1904 (lot 291).

Marble bust by Sir F. Chantrey. Royal Collection (formerly at Kew Palace).
Listed in Chantrey's 'Ledger' (MS, Royal Academy), p 276. Other busts by Chantrey are at Eton College (1836); Royal Collection (1837); formerly Herrenhausen, Hanover (1837); the Royal Academy (1841), exhibited British Portraits, RA, 1956-7 (522); the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (plaster model); the Admiralty (1841), exhibited Royal Naval Exhibition, Chelsea, 1891 (2839); and collection of Mrs E. Trench, 1944. Related drawings (NPG 316a, 141, 142).

Engraving by W. Skelton, published W. Deeley, 1837 (example in NPG).

c.1837
Miniature by an unknown artist (said to be the last portrait of William IV from life). Collection of Lord de L'Isle and Dudley. Reproduced Connoisseur, XVI (1906), 24.

Statue by an unknown artist. Gottingen, Germany.
Reproduced Liverpool Libraries, Museums and Arts Committee Bulletin, IV (1954), 18.

1844
Granite statue by S. Nixon. Greenwich.
Study for head exhibited RA, 1843 (1415).

c.1844
Statue by C. B. Robinson. Exhibited Westminster Hall, 1844. See R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors (1953), p 324.

1867
Statue by W. Theed. Sessions House, Old Bailey, London.

Undated
Painting by an unknown artist. Deal Borough.

Painting attributed to Sir G. Hayter. Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool.
See Liverpool Libraries, Museums and Arts Committee Bulletin, IV (1954), 17-20, reproduced on the cover.

Painting attributed to Sir G. Hayter. The Admiralty, Sheerness.

Painting by an unknown artist. Collection of the Earl of Denbigh, Newnham Paddox, 1907.

'The Waterloo Banquet' by W. Salter. Collection of the Duke of Wellington, Apsley House. Engraved by W. Greatbach, published F. G. Moon, 1846 (example in NPG). Study (NPG 3767).

Water-colour by R. Dighton. Sotheby's, 14-15 July 1932 (lot 306).

Drawing by H. D. Hamilton. Royal Collection. Oppé (286).

Miniature attributed to E. Miles. Victoria and Albert Museum.

Miniatures by R. Easton, J. Meyer and an unknown artist. Royal Collection.
The miniature by Meyer was exhibited Royal House of Guelph, New Gallery, 1891 (360). Another version of the Easton is in the NPG (see 4703).

Two miniatures by unknown artists (as a boy, one showing him as a sailor). Duke of Cambridge's Sale, Christie's, 13 June 1904 (lots 457 and 465a). One of them possibly the miniature exhibited Royal House of Guelph, New Gallery, 1891 (387).

Miniature by Mary, wife of 7th Earl of Denbigh. Collection of the Earl of Denbigh, Newnham Paddox, 1907.

Miniature by an unknown artist. Exhibited Royal Naval Exhibition, Chelsea, 1891 (1860), lent by G. H. Rudd.

Miniature by an unknown artist. Exhibited Portrait Miniatures, South Kensington Museum, 1865 (2224), lent by J. Brett.

Miniature by Hamburger. Collection of the Queen of Holland, 1924.

Miniature by an unknown artist. White's Club, London.
Exhibited Victorian Era Exhibition, 1897, 'Historical Section' (640).

'George III with his Sons and Sons-in-law', silhouette by F. Atkinson. Wellesley Sale, Christie's, 19 June 1917 (lot 133). Reproduced One Hundred Silhouette Portraits Selected from the Collection of Francis Wellesley (1912), plate I.

Silhouette by Watkin. Wellesley Sale (lot 132). Reproduced Wellesley, plate VIII.
Other silhouettes by Watkin are in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and the Royal Collection, the latter reproduced Connoisseur, XC (1932), 292.

Engraving of silhouette by I. Bruce (example in NPG).

Statue by L. Gahagan. Sold from Chandos House, Bath, 1840. See R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors (1953), p 161.

Plaster bust by an unknown artist. Formerly Royal United Service Museum.

Wax medallion by J. de Veaux (see NPG 2920).

Wax medallion by I. Gosset (as a young man). Collection of Miss Gosset, 1922.



This extended catalogue entry is from the out-of-print National Portrait Gallery collection catalogue: Richard Ormond, Early Victorian Portraits, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1973, and is as published then. For the most up-to-date details on individual Collection works, we recommend reading the information provided in the Search the Collection results on this website in parallel with this text.