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Regency Portraits Catalogue

Frederick, Duke of York and Albany (1763-1827), Commander-in-Chief of the Army; son of George III

The best account of the major portraiture of the Duke of York is in Sir Oliver Millar's The Later Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty the Queen, 1969. The list below excludes the personal and political satires by Cruikshank, John Doyle (HB), Gillray and others, described in detail in the British Museum Catalogues.

As Prince Frederick, Bishop of Osnabruck
1763
Medal struck to commemorate his birth and inscribed: PRINCE FREDERICK/DUKE OF/GLOUCESTER/BORN AUG/16 1763. The title is conjecture; he was not created Duke of York and Albany until 1784 and was never Duke of Gloucester (Laurence Brown, British Historical Medals, 1980, 87).

1764-5
Oil by Zoffany in the Royal Collection (Windsor Castle), 'Queen Charlotte with her two eldest sons, Prince Frederick in Turkish costume' (Sir Oliver Millar, The Later Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1969, 1199 and plate 26); another Zoffany, also in Windsor Castle, shows the two princes playing with a spaniel (Sir Oliver Millar, The Later Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1969, 1200 and plate 29).

1764
Oil by Ramsay in the Royal Collection (Buckingham Palace), 'Queen Charlotte with her two eldest sons' (Sir Oliver Millar, The Later Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1969, 998 and plate 3).

Medal by T. Pingo of Prince George and Prince Frederick.

1765
Medal by T. Pingo celebrating his second birthday, possibly that exhibited Associated Artists 1766 (136) (Laurence Brown, British Historical Medals, 1980, 90).

c.1765
Large mezzotint by J. Watson after C. Read, with the Prince of Wales and a dog.

1766
Wax profile by Joachim Smith in the Royal Collection (Windsor Castle).

Enamel by Jeremiah Meyer in Royal Collection (Windsor Castle) exhibited Society of Artists 1767 (103) and another RA 1769 (70); a wood engraving by W. Walker after one of these was used as frontispiece to Christopher Smart's Hymns for the Amusement of Children, 1771.

1769
Drawing by H. D. Hamilton at Windsor Castle (A. P. Oppé, English Drawings … at Windsor Castle, 1950, plate 8).

c.1770
Oil by Zoffany in the Royal Collection (Windsor Castle), 'George III, George Charlotte and their six eldest children in Van Dyck costume'; a variant of the two princes only is in Buckingham Palace (Sir Oliver Millar, The Later Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1969, 1201-3 and plates 32-3). An oil by Zoffany in the collection of the Prince of Hanover (Calenberg) shows the Prince as a boy in military coat standing by a drum and suit of armour; the original, without attributes, is in Buckingham Palace (Sir Oliver Millar, The Later Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1969, 1205 and plate 38).

1771
Oil by Richard Brompton in the Royal Collection (Buckingham Palace), whole-length in robes of the Bath, signed and dated February 1771 (Sir Oliver Millar, The Later Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1969, 688); it was exhibited RA 1772 (27) and a mezzotint by G. Saunders was published by W. Shropshire 1774. A replica is at Clarence House.

c.1771
Large oval mezzotint drawn and engraved by R. Lowrie (Laurie), three-quarter-length in Van Dyck costume with the Prince of Wales, published 10 January 1772.

c.1772
Oil (?) by Gaetano Manini exhibited Society of Artists 1772 (113), 'The Establishment of the Academy of Arts'.

c.1773
Oil by an unknown artist in the Prince of Hanover's collection (Marienburg), whole-length standing aged about 10 in a blue and gold suit, Ribbon and Star of Garter.

1774
Miniature by Jeremiah Meyer exhibited RA 1774 (182), perhaps that now in the Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore.

1777
Oil by Benjamin West in the Royal Collection (Buckingham Palace), whole-length with the Prince of Wales, in Garter Robes and Collars of Garter and Bath (Sir Oliver Millar, The Later Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1969, 1143 and plate 110); an oval line engraving of the head only was used for The London Magazine, January 1780.

1778
Wax profile by Isaac Gosset in the Royal Collection (Windsor Castle), exhibited Society of Artists 1778.

1781
Stipple and aquatint by J. P. Ganz, large head and shoulders profile to left as a youth in uniform, reproduced A. H. Burne, The Noble Duke of York, 1949, p 241.

1782
The Duke received his military education in Germany 1780-7, consequently he was not included in Gainsborough's series of the Princes and Princesses painted in 1782.

As Duke of York and Colonel of Coldstream Guards
c.1784
Miniature by Cosway in Royal Collection, exhibited 'George III' 1974-5 (150), head and shoulders in uniform of Coldstream Guards, signed and dated 1792 but surely earlier and probably a copy of a miniature of c.1784, the date of his appointment as Colonel.

Line engraving in oval rococo frame, head and shoulders to right in embroidered coat and Garter Ribbon, published in New Lady's Magazine, November 1784, p 500.

Portrait known from a line engraving by Cook, whole-length in uniform leaning against a garden pedestal, published in The Lady's Magazine 1786.

Portrait by Samuel Woodforde presented to the Queen, perhaps that exhibited RA 1784 (338) as 'Portrait of a young nobleman' (see James Woodforde's Diary of a Country Parson, 5 June 1784).

1785
The Duke's hair-style becomes less formal. A miniature by Jeremiah Meyer in the Royal Collection, exhibited 'George III' 1974-5 (151) is evidence of this.

1787-8
Oil by Reynolds in Royal Collection (Buckingham Palace), whole-length in Garter Robes with sittings in 1787-8 and exhibited RA 1788 (Sir Oliver Millar, The Later Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1969, 1018 and plate 102).

Oil by Gainsborough at Cowdray Park, identity doubtful (Sir Ellis Waterhouse, Gainsborough, 1958, p 97, no.744).

1787
The Duke returned to England, 2 August 1787. Cosway was appointed miniature painter to the Prince of Wales in about 1786 and painted several portraits of his brother thereafter. A drawing at St Giles's House (Earl of Shaftesbury), whole-length to right in armour holding bishop's crozier, was made as a pair to one of the Prince of Wales engraved by Sailliar in 1787.

Bust by Lochée exhibited RA 1787 (60), presumably the marble bust now at Windsor Castle; Lochée must have had sittings in Germany as the Duke was abroad until 2 August. A painted plaster variant was lent by Lord Sherwood to the 'Regency Exhibition' Brighton 1948 (1). A wax relief profile to left is in the British Museum (87.12-16.25). A group of medallions modelled by Lochée and E. Burch, issued by Wedgwood in 1787, are in NPG Reference Collection. A pale blue jasper medallion dipped darker blue was lent by the Nottingham Museum to the Wedgwood Portrait Exhibition, NPG 1973-4 (41).

1788
Oil by Mather Brown at Waddesdon Manor, whole-length standing in uniform as Colonel of Coldstream Guards, exhibited RA 1789 (237), reproduced Waterhouse, Waddesdon Manor: Paintings, 1967, p 29. Mather Brown was appointed official portrait painter to the Duke of York as a result of this picture (Dorinda Evans, Benjamin West and his American Students, 1980, pp 81-2). A similar portrait was stolen from the Canton House Galleries in 1930, attributed to Gainsborough.

Drawing by R. Corbould known from a line engraving by Angus published 25 October 1788, whole-length standing in uniform right hand on sword; a variant engraving by A. W. Warren, with cocked hat and background tents added, was published 15 October 1803 as plate to Lyttelton's History of England.

Silhouette by Rosenberg in the Royal Collection; another is reproduced in John Woodiwiss, British Silhouettes, 1965, p 29.

Wax bust by Silvester exhibited RA 1788 (655), probably part of Mrs Sylvester's Celebrated Cabinet of Royal Wax-Works (see E. J. Pyke, Dictionary of Wax Modellers, 1973, pp 143-4).

1789
Drawing by Lawrence, see NPG 1563.

1790-1
Oil by Hoppner exhibited RA 1791 (76) and known from the mezzotint by C. H. Hodges published 1 December 1791, whole-length standing in uniform (John Chaloner Smith, British Mezzotint Portraits, II, p 639, 36); a copy, cut down to half-length in 1963, is in the Army and Navy Club, Pall Mall. A variant, with trooper holding rearing horse in background, was exhibited RA 1792 (59), engraved in mezzotint by W. Dickinson 1795, and probably that at Christie's 6 April 1973 (92) and again 16 July 1982 (75).

c.1790
Drawing by Francis Wheatley in the V&A Museum, 'Interior of the Shakespeare Gallery, afterwards the British Institution, Pall Mall, 1790'.

1791
The Duke was married to Frederica Princess Royal of Prussia on 29 September 1791. Commemoration medals were struck in Germany by Stienle and F. Loos and in England by W. Mainwaring (Laurence Brown, British Historical Medals, 1980, 347-9). 'The Introduction of the Duchess of York to the Royal Family' was painted by R. Livesay and engraved in mezzotint by J. Murphy (example in British Museum). The marriage ceremony was painted by H. Singleton, known from a coloured mezzotint by Valentine Green (reproduced Clifford Smith, Buckingham Palace, 1931, no.87).

Stipple engraving by D. Orme 5 December 1791 published in Mirabeau's Histoire Secrete de la Cour de Berlin, 1792.

1792
Miniature by Cosway in the Royal Collection, signed and dated 1792, see above under c.1784.

1793
Medals celebrating the Capitulation of Valenciennes were struck by Whitley, Mainwaning and Twigg (Laurence Brown, British Historical Medals, 1980, 367-9), the profiles deriving from Lochée's bust of 1787.

Miniature by John Bogle at Stanford Hall (Lord Braye) and another in the collection of the Prince of Hanover (Calenberg); it was engraved by Schiavonetti and published 10 August 1793; a variant in pen, ink and watercolour by Robert Dighton was at Sotheby's (Jeffrey Rose sale) 23 February 1978 (87).

Watercolour drawing by R. Dighton in the same sale (lot 85) shows the Duke standing whole-length in rakish cocked hat and uniform as Colonel of Coldstream Guards, Valenciennes in background.

Silhouette by W. Wellings published by Wellings, 2 October 1793, in NPG Reference Collection.

1794
Mezzotint published by John Fairburn, 1 February 1794, whole-length equestrian with Valenciennes in background, the head taken from a miniature known from an oval stipple engraved by J. Pass, head and shoulders profile to right as Commander-in-Chief of British and Hanoverian troops.

Oil by P. de Louthebourg at Easton Neston (Lord Hesketh), a group of staff officers at Valenciennes, the Duke and Prince Adolphus on horseback prominent in the foreground, signed and dated 1794.

1795
Oil by William Anderson at Christie's 23 March 1979 (99), the Duke with Staff Officers reviewing the troops in Flanders; an oil study signed and dated 1795 is in the Hon Artillery Company collection, and another was at Sotheby's (Paul Mellon sale) 18 November 1981 (177).

Wax by T. R. Poole, profile with the Prince of Wales, see NPG 3308.

c.1795
Silhouette with his brother the Prince of Wales, Sotheby's 28 July 1980 (154).

1797-8
Oil by Beechey in the Royal Collection (Windsor Castle), 'George III at a Review', the Duke on horseback as Commander-in-Chief and Field Marshal (Sir Oliver Millar, The Later Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1969, 660 and plate 161); Farington mentions a sitting: 'Duke of York very like' (Diary of Joseph Farington, 8 February 1798). Variants of the Duke alone and unmounted were exhibited RA 1801 (79) and 1812 (113), one of these being the whole-length in the Royal Military School, Dover (reproduced A. H. Burne, The Noble Duke of York, 1949, p 240); another was at Sotheby's (Lord Newton sale) 17 July 1946 and again 16 June 1954 (96); engravings were published by Bourlier 1806 (head and shoulders only), by Scriven 1807 (head and shoulders only), a whole-length mezzotint by Charles Turner 1812 (Alfred Whitman, Charles Turner, 1907, 632) and a line engraving by Skelton published 25 October 1812.

Coloured etching by C. Tomkins, 'Military Portraits of THE KING, the PRINCE of WALES, and the DUKE of YORK' possibly reviewing the 10th Dragoons (example in NPG library, Madame D'Arblay Diary, IV, p 56).

1797
Miniature by J. Tallent exhibited RA 1797 (1013).

1798-9
Silhouette by Charles Rosenberg at Althorp (Lord Spencer), 'A Royal Group on the Esplanade at Weymouth', reproduced Sue McKechnie, British Silhouette Artists and their Work 1760-1860, 1978.

1798
Miniature by R. Bull exhibited RA 1798 (861).

1799
Miniature by D. Orme known from a stipple engraving and published by Orme 2 April 1799, head and shoulders to left in uniform, Star of Garter, Ribbon of Bath, as 'Fieldmarshall of England &c &c'.

Wax model by Poole exhibited RA 1799 (1087), see NPG 3308.

1800-10
Miniature by W. M Craig known from a circular stipple engraving by S. Freeman published 1817.

Pastel by John Russell in the Royal Collection (Buckingham Palace); another was at Claremont in 1894 (Williamson, John Russell R.A., 1893, p 160); a miniature variant is in the Prince of Hanover's collection (Calenberg).

1800
Medal by Wyon - 'YORK AND VIRTUE/A TRIBUTE OF GRATITUDE TO A BRITISH WORTHY/MDCCC' (Laurence Brown, British Historical Medals, 1980, 487).

c.1800
Miniature by J. T. Barber Beaumont in the Sun Alliance Insurance Group collection, reproduced Connoisseur, CXCV, 1977, p 190.

1803
Miniature by Huet-Villiers exhibited RA 1803 (426) and engraved by Schiavonetti 1807.

1804
Drawing by Adam Buck exhibited RA 1804 (440).

Wax model by Percy exhibited RA 1804 (957).

1806
The Duke appears as Commander-in-Chief of the British Army in 'Nelson's Funeral Procession to St Paul's' by A. C. Pugin, engraved by M. Merigot.

1812
Drawing by Adam Buck in the Royal Collection (Windsor Castle), whole-length profile to left carrying hat and stock, Windsor Castle in background, signed and dated 1812 and probably that exhibited RA 1812 (Oppé, English Drawings … at Windsor Castle, 1950, 95).

c.1812
Miniature by W. Haines known from engraving by H. R. Cook 1815, T. Wallis 1815, A. Whellier 1815, and others, half-length bareheaded to left in Coldstream uniform, Star of Garter, Ribbon of Bath.

1813-14
Oils by Lawrence, see NPG 1563.

1813
Marble bust by Nollekens in the Royal Collection (Windsor Castle), signed and dated 1813, exhibited RA 1813 (926); a copy was at Rudding Park and later with Cyril Humphries; copies by Chantrey 1837 are in the Royal Collection (Buckingham Palace), Herrenhausen and in Lancaster House; a bust by Olivieri in the Thomas Robson sale 1835 was probably a copy of the Nollekens (Rupert Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660-1851, 1953, p 283); plaster copies were published by C. L. Stout 24 June 1823; small porcelain copies exist and small bronze copies were published by T. Hamlet, 1 January 1823; a laudatory medal by A. J. Stothard after Nollekens was published by Parker as one of his 'Great Men' series 1826 (Laurence Brown, British Historical Medals, 1980, 1255); a wax profile to right, deriving from the Nollekens, was at Sotheby's 18 December 1972 (5).

Medal by Webb and Brenet, 'FIELD MARSHAL F. DUKE OF YORK', commemorated the presentation of colours to the Royal Military Academy by Queen Charlotte in August 1813 (Laurence Brown, British Historical Medals, 1980, 769).

1814
Oil by George Jones at Magdalen College, Oxford, 'The Reception of the Prince Regent in Oxford June 1814'; the Prince with the Duke of York and the Prince of Orange are welcomed by the Lord Mayor outside the Queen's College.

Silhouette by Charles Rosenberg engraved by Freschi and published 18 January 1814, head and shoulders enclosed by the Chain of the Order of the Bath over military trophies.

c.1815
Drawing by Simon De Koster, whole-length standing in uniform, known from an engraving by W. T. Fry, published March 1816.

1816
Oil by Lawrence in Royal Collection (Sir Oliver Millar, The Later Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1969, 876 and plate 197).

1818
Miniature by Paul Fischer in Royal Collection (Windsor Castle) exhibited SKM 1865 (7).

1820-5
Cameo by Apsley Pellatt on a paperweight in Royal Collection (Country Life, 3 June 1949, p 1304).

1820
'The Trial of Queen Caroline' and related sketches by Hayter (NPG 999, 1695(t) and 2662(21)).

1821
Miniature (or oil) by Robert Bowyer mentioned in the Bowyer Memorials p 17 and probably the origin of the mezzotint by John Bromley published 1828.

Coronation of George IV. Watercolour drawing by James Stephanoff in V&A Museum (61-1878) shows the Duke, whole-length with his train-bearer, engraved in mezzotint by S. W. Reynolds for Nayler's History of the Coronation (Alfred Whitman, S. W. Reynolds, 1903, 311).

c.1821
Silhouette by F. Atkinson, 'George III with his Sons and Sons-in-Law', Wellesley sale Christie's 19 June 1917 (133), see Sue McKechnie, British Silhouette Artists and their Work 1760-1860, 1978, pp 185-6 and reproduced The Wellesley Silhouettes, plate 1. An adaptation is used for endpapers to this Catalogue.

1822-3
Oil by Wilkie (NPG 2936).

1822
Oils by Lawrence, see NPG 1563.

Oil by John Jackson (NPG 1615).

1823
Oil by Phillips in Liverpool Town Hall, listed in Phillips's Sitter Book, 1823, exhibited RA 1823 (78) and British Institution 1825 (128); it was engraved by J. Jenkins for Jerdan's National Portrait Gallery, 1832 and shows him in Coronation robes.

1824
Small bronze statue by R. Henderson, signed and dated 1824, at Sotheby's 16 March 1979 (109), perhaps that exhibited RA 1826 (108).

Portrait by Abraham Wivell known from two mezzotints by Thomson and Lupton, both published by Sams 1824, half-length in uniform holding a letter; a crude oil copy was at Sotheby's 18 December 1974 (142), signed and dated: R ... S ... 1828.

1825
Medal by Isaac Parkes commemorating the Duke's speech in the House of Lords on the Protestant Ascendancy, 25 April 1825 (Laurence Brown, British Historical Medals, 1980, 1248); an example is in the National Museum of Ireland. Another medal by Parkes commemorates the Duke's speech and the Williamite Club (ibid., 1252).

Oil by Andrew Geddes exhibited RA 1825 (58) but only known from the mezzotint by T. Hodgetts published by Colnaghi; a miniature by H. Collen at Calenberg signed and dated 1828, stems closely from the Geddes but in civilian dress, dark blue coat, red waistcoat, black neckcloth.

Portrait by Walter Paton known from a large stipple engraving by himself surmounting a broadside of the Duke's speech in the House of Lords.

Marble bust by T. Campbell at Stratfield Saye, signed and dated 1825; a copy is at Hopetoun House; statues by Campbell are in the Crown Estate Commissioners' collection (formerly United Service Club, Pall Mall) (1829) and in Edinburgh (1839).

Silhouette drawing by George Atkinson engraved by Scriven 1825.

Oil by Henry Wyatt at Apsley House, head and shoulders in dark blue coat with brass buttons; a version dated 1825 is in Temple Newsam House, Leeds.

c.1825
Miniature by an unknown artist is at Calenberg, reproduced Williamson, Catalogue, plate XIV.

Miniature by Henry Dawe, half-length to left in uniform, Ribbon and Star of Garter, known from a posthumous mezzotint 'engraved from a miniature of the same size' and dedicated 'to the British Army, their deceased Commander & Friend'.

Oil by T. C. Thompson painted for the Guild of Merchants in Dublin 'as a memorial for his uncompromising attitude in regard to the Established Church'; it later hung in the Royal Hibernian School Phoenix Park (W. G. Strickland, Dictionary of Irish Artists, II, p 443).

1826
Drawing 'from life 1826' by John Neville and lithographed by Neville published 20 January 1827, head and shoulders profile to left; a similar profile 'Drawn on stone by Mr Aldous Artist' was published by Englemann, copy in NPG Reference Collection, see Sue McKechnie, British Silhouette Artists and their Work 1760-1860, 1978, p 366.

Drawing in Royal Collection (Windsor Castle), 'A SKETCH TAKEN AT NEWMARKET', equestrian in profile to right, reproduced A. H. Burne, The Noble Duke of York, 1949, p 241.

Marble statue by Rossi exhibited RA 1826 (1068), 'model for an equestrian group'.

Marble bust by William Behnes in Royal Collection exhibited RA 1826 (1076) and engraved in stipple by Scriven with a halo of stars.

Wax portrait by C. H. Weigall exhibited RA 1826 (941).

Undated
Portrait by E. F. Cunningham known from a large mezzotint by D. Cunego.

Marble bust by Francis at Frogmore.

Miniature by Charles Jagger in the Holburne Museum, Bath.

Marble bust by Prosperi formerly at Holland House.

Portrait by Sir Robert Porter known from a mezzotint by S. W. Reynolds.

Posthumous
1827
The Duke died on 5 January 1827. Medals commemorating him were issued by Binfield and Folkard, Faulkner, Halliday, Ingram, Ottley, Parkes, Pistrucci, Stothard, T. Webb and others (Laurence Brown, British Historical Medals, 1980, 1273-95). A medallic portrait by T. Smith exhibited RA 1827 (1040) and an impression from an intaglio by W. Warner RA 1827 (1040). A design for a monument by E. W. Trendall exhibited SBA 1827 (738). An enamel by William Bate in the National Gallery of Ireland (Lawrence NPG type) reproduced Daphne Foskett, Dictionary of British Miniature Painters, 1972, plate 13. Wax bust by David Morison, signed and dated 1827, at Christie's 10 November 1980 (14). Bronze statuette published by J. & R. Warner 20 April 1827. Medallions by J. Wilson in Scottish NPG (446 and 510).

c.1827
Silhouette by Crowhurst (NPG 1691).

1828
Medal by Bain exhibited RA 1828 (921).

Wax bust by W. Pickman exhibited SBA 1828.

1829
Model for a bronze equestrian statue by C. Garrard exhibited RA 1829 (1140), and another by Richard Lawrence SBA 1829 (846).

Portrait by J. George exhibited SBA 1829 (355).

Impression from a die by E. Richardson exhibited SBA 1829 (843).

1831
Miniature by F. H. Bischoff exhibited SBA 1831 (696).

1832
Wax medallion by John De Veaux (NPG 2921).

Equestrian statue by Vincent Gahagan exhibited British Gallery 1832 (Rupert Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660-1851, 1953, 162).

1834
Westmacott's statue was set up on the Duke of York's Column, Waterloo Steps, in 1834.



This extended catalogue entry is from the out-of-print National Portrait Gallery collection catalogue: Richard Walker, Regency Portraits, National Portrait Gallery, 1985, and is as published then. For the most up-to-date details on individual Collection works, we recommend reading the information provided in the Search the Collection results on this website in parallel with this text.