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Later Victorian Portraits Catalogue

Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890), Explorer and writer

Paintings, drawings, sculptures and prints
Possible portrait
Doubtful portraits
Posthumous portraits
Undated photographs
Posthumous photographs

Self-portraitsback to top

Pen and ink drawing, 175 x 124mm, inscr. in Farsi (Persian) ‘What is thy name?’, half-length, profile to left, long goatee beard, without hat; untraced. Repr. Christie’s, 16 July 1993 (2); Phillips, 1 Nov. 1995 (29); Christie’s, 26 Sept. 1997 (81, no provenance given).

Design for The Pilgrim, whole-length to left, standing in desert, holding tall spear in right hand over shoulder, left hand at waist with dagger, wearing long green coat over white tunic with thin red stripe and keffiyeh with yellow, green and red stripes, two palm trees to right, no camels; untraced. Repr. as coloured lithograph by M. & N. Hanhart (inscr. ‘RB del / Hanhart lith’) Burton 1855, vol.2, frontispiece; and by C.F. Kell after Hanhart, coll. RGS, London, 321204 [Image S0013083]. This design is a stiff, inexpert depiction based on the costume and figure of Burton as drawn by Edward Lear and Thomas Seddon in Cairo in 1853 (see below, ‘Paintings, drawings, sculptures and prints’).
Engraving after Hanhart, without landscape and with other alterations to pose and costume, repr. as engr. by ‘P.N.’, ILN, 1 Nov. 1890, p.552 (captioned ‘Captain Burton as “Shaykh Abdullah” travelling in Arabia’); also repr., with minor alterations to the landscape and the addition of a sitting camel by the trees, as coloured lithograph by Vincent Brooks, Day & Son Burton 1893, vol.1, facing p.170 (captioned ‘Richard Burton as Haji Abdullah en route to Mecca’); Wright 1906, vol.1, p.110 (captioned ‘Burton in the Desert’); Brodie 1967, pl.4 (captioned ‘Haji Abdullah en route to Mecca 1853 [sic]’); and Jeal 2011, facing p.174 (captioned ‘Richard Burton depicted as an Afghan peddler [sic]’).
Recorded copy versions of the coloured lithograph :
(a) oil on canvas, 800 x 600mm, by unidentified artist, possibly Costantino Borgo Caratti or Albert Letchford; Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 00555L. Repr. Orleans House 2002, p.30.
(b) oil on canvas, 760 x 510mm unframed, by Herbert (?Oakes)-Jones, ‘as Hadji Abdullah at Mecca 1893’; Royal Anthropological Inst., London (transferred from Royal Borough of Kensington & Chelsea in 1955 with Burton’s library and other items).
(c) oil on canvas, 670 x 508mm, by H. Jones, ‘Copy of portrait of 1893 by unknown artist’, recorded as being in the collection of the RGS (NPG NoC) but is not now found there. In view of the similar dimensions and artist’s name it seems likely this is version (b) now in the Royal Anthropological Inst.

Two sketches in pencil, pen and ink and watercolour, showing Burton and companions on expedition to Cameroon Mountains, West Africa, Dec. 1861:
(a) 70 x 200mm, thumbnail figure, seated; untraced. Repr. Burton 1863, vol.2, facing p.136; Christie’s, 16 July 1993 (29).
(b) 70 x 110mm, inscr. ‘Peculiar descent of Mt. Helen…’, thumbnail figure with others sliding down hillside; untraced. Repr. Christie’s, 16 July 1993 (29).

Ink or pencil caricature drawing, head as face of lion carrying wife Isabel; Wiltshire Record Office. Repr. Lovell 1998, pl.29.

Thumbnail sketch of male figure in fencing pose, whole-length, profile to right, arm holding foil; untraced. Repr. Burton 1884, p.127, fig.112.

Paintings, drawings, sculptures and printsback to top

Painting by unidentified naive artist, whole-length, as child with sister and brother in garden; priv. coll. Repr. Bookman, May 1906, p.51; Wright 1906, vol.1, p.49; and Lovell 1998, pl.4 (image credited to the author).

Oil on canvas, 580 x 630mm oval, by Claude Jacquand (surname inscr. on frame), Boulogne, half-length to front, seated, left hand to head, wearing military uniform, behind sister with large album; Royal Anthropological Inst., London. Ref. Wright 1906, vol.1, p.32, where the artist’s name is erroneously given as François Jacquand; repr. Bookman, May 1906, p.55; Wright 1906, vol.1, p.93; Brodie 1967, pl.3; Hastings 1978, pl.1 (cropped); Lovell 1998, pl.7; and Godsall 2008, pl.7.

Two pencil, sepia and watercolour sketches by Edward Lear, both dated 23 Dec. 1853, Cairo, now mounted together:
(a) 169 x 143mm, inscr. ‘R.Burton Cairo’, bust, profile to left, bearded, wearing Arab headdress; Houghton L., Harvard U., MS Typ. 55.26 (804). Ref. Noakes 1985, no.27c.
(b) 229 x 155mm, whole-length, standing in landscape, wearing Arab costume incl. large keffiyah and agal, holding pole in right hand and pommel of pistol in left; Houghton L., Harvard U., MS Typ. 55.26 (805). Ref. and repr. Noakes 1985, p.72, no.27d.
Image (b) is close in costume and composition to the watercolour by Thomas Seddon below. Both drawings appear to have been used as bases for the design (figure in reverse pose) published as a lithograph by Burton in 1855 (see above, ‘Self-Portraits, c.1855’).

Watercolour drawing, 280 x 190mm, by Thomas Seddon, signed and dated 1854, whole-length to right, standing, wearing Arab costume of dark robe over white tunic, multi-coloured keffiyeh and belt, right hand holding pole, left hand on gun and dagger at waist, in desert landscape in front of sitting camel to right; priv. coll., 2008. Exh. private exhibition in the artist’s studio, London, 1855 (described as ‘Shaykh with camel lying down’, Spectator, 14 Apr. 1855, p.392); Eastern Encounters, FAS, London, 1978 (57); The Inspiration of Egypt, Brighton MAG and Manchester CAG, 1983 (329); ref. Noakes 1985, p.114; Sotheby’s Belgravia, 10 July 1973 (31); Yale CBA The Lure of the East: British Orientalist Painting 1830–1925, 2008, p.53; repr. Staley 1973, p.98; Conner 1983, p.133. According to Seddon, who met Burton in Cairo in 1853, he ‘painted a portrait of Lieutenant Burton in full Arab costume, with a camel, for an account he is going to publish of his travels in Arabia and his journey to Mecca’. (Letter from T. Seddon to Emmeline Bulford, 30 Dec. 1853; Seddon 1858, p.32).
Lithograph by C.F. Kell, repr. Burton 1855, vol.1, facing p.235 (credited to Seddon and captioned ‘An Arab Shayk in his travelling dress’, with acknowledgement ‘To the kindness of a friend – Thomas Seddon’).

Miniature by unidentified artist, head-and-shoulders to front, long moustache, wearing dark coat; untraced. Repr., ed. Gavan Tredoux.

after 1857
Print, 290 x 183mm, after engraving by unidentified artist, ‘Explorers in East Africa’, whole-length, profile to right in centre of composition, riding on a donkey, from publication Lake Regions of Central Africa (copy RGS, London, PR/026481 [A]). This could possibly be based on a sketch supplied by Burton.

Design by unidentified artist, oval format, three-quarter-length to right, seated, facing front, moustache, no beard, hands clasped on pommel of regimental sword; repr. as wood-engr. ILN, 2 Feb. 1861, p.106 (captioned ‘Captain Burton the African Traveller’).

Oil and gouache miniature by Louis William Desanges, oval format, head to left, tanned skin, dark hair, long moustache, no beard; Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDORL:00560L; framed with companion miniature of his wife Isabel and known as the ‘wedding portraits’. Repr. Bookman, May 1906, p.56; Wright 1906, vol.1, p.169; Dearden 1936, frontispiece (colour) and facing p.78; Brodie 1967, pl.9; Hastings 1978, pl.9; Lovell 1998, pl.2; and Orleans House 2002, p.28. A photograph after the dual image is in Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDORL 02365L, together with a glass plate neg. photograph of the Burtons’ sitting room in Trieste showing the two portraits in situ, LDROL 02386L.

Drawing or sketch, 188 x 122mm, by unidentified artist, head, profile to left, with very long moustache; known from photograph coll. RGS, London, PR/050368 (A).

Oil on canvas, 915 x 711mm, by Rudolf Lehmann, inscr. on verso ‘Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton / KCMG.FRGS / 1863 / left to the Family Portraits / at Wardour Castle by his / wife ISABEL nee ARUNDELL’, half-length to left, dark hair, long moustache, right hand shown, wearing civilian clothes, in interior space before classical column; coll. Christopher Ondaatje.
Repr. Christie’s, 14 July 1995 (88, with provenance from Isabel Burton); and as oval vignette, Lovell 1998, pl.12 (described as Isabel’s favourite painting, credited to Ondaatje). If the ascribed date is correct, this could be a post-marriage commission by Isabel Burton. However, Burton was in Britain for only the first three months of 1863, while Lehmann was at that time resident in Rome, only settling in London in 1866. In his An Artist’s Reminiscences (1894), Lehmann does not list Burton as among his celebrated sitters.

Sculpture by E.G. Papworth snr, bust; untraced. Exh. RA 1865 (979).

Pencil sketch by William Simpson, inscr. ‘Burton. Roy.Geo.Soc. / 27 Novbr 1871’, head-and-shoulders to front, showing long moustaches, no beard and prominent widow’s peak; untraced. Repr. Christie’s, 29 Apr. 1999 (87).

Oil by Frederic Leighton; see NPG 1070.
This is generally regarded as the prime portrait of Burton.
Etching, 248 x 197mm, by Léopold Flameng after Leighton, c.1872–5; copies colls NPG D38802; and Fine Arts M. of San Francisco, Achenbach Foundation, 1963.30.23070.
Copies or studies after Leighton made at the NPG by H. Oakes-Jones, 1903 (see main entry for details); A. Reynolds, 1909; J.L. Reilly, 1911; J.G. Pollock-Smith, 1920; M. Bruce, 1935; and others. Ref. Register of applications to copy portraits, NPG 77/5.
Copies by unidentified artists after Leighton:
(a) Oil, 533 x 457mm; sold Spinks 1976 (221) with collection of Burton books. Repr. Hastings 1978, pl.22 (picture credit J.T. Bowden). Possibly the same as an oil, 530 x 430mm, sold at Phillips, 30 May 1986 (76).
(b) Oil, approx. 610 x 508mm; sold Christie’s, 1983 (as a portrait of a gentleman in the manner of Van Dyck).
(c) Oil, 382 x 305mm, head-and-shoulders; Christie’s, 7 Apr. 2004 (214, ill).
(d) Oil, 768 x 642mm, head-and-shoulders on full-size canvas; Christie’s SK, 23 Apr. 2008 (564).
Colour print of a painted copy by an unidentified artist after Leighton repr. Weinthal 1923, vol.1, p.130.
Mezzotint, 294 x 222mm, by Sydney M. Litten after Leighton; exh. RA 1923 (1080).
Print by unidentified artist after drawing by Charles Albert Waltner after Leighton; ref. NPG Portrait Index (Burton).

Caricature by Carlo Pellegrini (‘Ape’); see NPG 5787.
Chromolithograph by Vincent Brooks, Day & Son, repr. Vanity Fair, 24 Oct. 1885, pl.343.

Pencil sketch by Marian Collier (née Huxley); see NPG 3148.

Oil on canvas (unfinished), 660 x 533mm, by George Frederic Watts, head-and-shoulders, three-quarter profile to right, very long moustache, no beard; Watts G., Compton, COMWG.176. Repr. M.S. Watts, MS ‘Catalogue of the works of G.F. Watts’, compiled c.1910, 2 vols, Watts G. Archive, Compton, typescript copy NPG, vol.2, p.24; contemporary repr. as collotype, 310 x 230mm, by unidentified photographer; Roy Davids Coll., Bonhams, 29 Mar. 2011 (378). Apparently intended for the Hall of Fame, and begun in Brighton, but abandoned unfinished because Watts ‘could not stand Burton’s company’ (Watts Gallery website, 2009).

Oil on canvas, 1020 x 900mm, by [?Maria] Gutmansthal de Benvenuti, Trieste, half-length, half-profile to left, red and black check plaid over shoulder, wearing hat with wide brim and tall crown; SOAS, U. of London, Special Colls, 107. Repr. (reversed) Burton 1893, vol.2, frontispiece (but listed as facing p.168); Schonfield 1936, frontispiece; and Brodie 1967, pl.16. A dramatic and somewhat romanticized image, showing Burton as younger than his 58 years (cf. Watts’s contemporaneous portrait with grizzled hair and beard) but in keeping with his reputation.

Oil on canvas by Charles Palme Downing, signed and dated, head-and-shoulders, untraced. Ref. Christie’s SK, 22 Aug. 1979 (108).

before 1890
Wax figure by John Theodore Tussaud, whole-length, lifesize, standing; presumed destroyed. Repr. Wright 1906, vol.2, p.276; and J.T. Tussaud, The Romance of Madame Tussaud’s, London, 1920, p.172 (halftone). This figure apparently pre-dated Burton’s death, but was refurbished and re-installed in 1894, using Arab dress supplied by his widow. She wrote: ‘[Tussauds] have now put Richard in the Meccan dress he wore in the desert. They have given him a large space with sand, water, palms; and three camels and a domed skylight, painted yellow, throws a lurid light on the scene. It is quite life-like. I gave them the real clothes and the real weapons and dressed him myself.’ (Letter from I. Burton to Maria Benvenuti, 10 Jan. 1894, quoted Wright 1906, vol.2, p.275).

A sequence of works by Albert Letchford:
(a) Oil on canvas, 2743 x 1372mm, signed and inscr. ‘Captain Richard F. Burton KCMG FRGS maitre d’armes France 15 December 1852’ and dated ‘Trieste 1883 [sic]’, whole-length, half-profile to left, double-pointed beard, wearing fencing clothes with red sash, holding foil in right hand, mask in left, standing before curtain; Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDORL 00554. Exh. London 1890s (exact location unknown – see Lovell 1998, p.720); repr. Lovell 1998, pl.43.
This portrait in its original form (with Burton’s left hand at his side, without mask, as in [b] below) is also seen in two photographs from c.1890:
(i) Letchford with palette in front of painting; Orleans House G., Twickenham, album 1 02373L, p.5. Repr. Wright 1906, vol.2, p.233. The composition is as in (b) below but the enormous size of the canvas indicates that the photograph depicts version (a) in progress.
(ii) the painting in an unfinished state; Orleans House G., Twickenham, album 1 02373L, p.4.
Commissioned by Burton’s wife, this portrait shows Burton as he would have looked in the 1860s, in his role as fencing master. The likeness is thought to have been copied from a photograph, and the work must have been executed at a date after 1883, when the artist was aged only 17 (correspondence from Rodney Searight, NPG NoS [Burton]).

(b) Oil on panel version or study, 355 x 268mm, same pose as (a) but the foil at a different angle and no mask; V&A, London, SD.577 (where dated ‘c.1883’). Repr. Wright 1906, vol.2, p.235 (as ‘unfinished oil by Letchford’); Brodie 1967, pl.20; Hastings 1978, pl.23; and Bridgeman AL. This version formerly belonged to the artist’s nephew.

(c) Oil on canvas, 685 x 527mm, head-and-shoulders, white hair and beard; priv. coll. (from information on photograph in NPG SB [Burton]). Repr. as engr. ‘from a photograph of a painting by Albert Letchford’, Scribner’s Magazine, Feb. 1891, p.186.

(d) Oil on canvas, signed and inscr. ‘A. Letchford. Trieste 89’, rear view, whole-length, seated at desk in room at Trieste; Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDORL 00566L. Repr. Burton 1893, vol.2, facing p.274; and Dearden 1936, p.158. Probably after a photograph by F.G. Baker (see below, ‘Photographs, 1890’).

Red and black chalk drawing by Anna Simonsen, drawn at Maloja Hotel, Engadine; untraced. Ref. Lovell 1999, p.879 n.68, citing Pall Mall Gazette, 1890. Burton stayed at this hotel at the end of Aug./early Sept. 1890.

Possible portraitback to top

Oil on paper 173 x 146mm, attributed to Albert Letchford, head-and-shoulders, half-profile to left, wearing Arab headdress; V&A, London, SD.578.

Doubtful portraitsback to top

Oil on canvas, 464 x 362mm, by Thomas Seddon, signed and dated ‘Egypt 1854’, whole-length to right, standing, with greying beard, wearing Arab costume of white robe over white tunic, right hand holding pole or spear, left hand by his side, in desert landscape with bedouin tents and figures in background and (on right) standing camel; with Lowell Libson Ltd, London, 2010. Exh. RA 1856 (9, as ‘An Arab Sheikh, and tents in the Egyptian desert. Painted on the spot’); Soc. of Arts, London, 1857; Travellers beyond the Grand Tour, FAS, London, 1980 (90, ill. p.49); and The Orientalists: Delacroix to Matisse, NG Washington, 1984 (117, ill., as ‘Arab Shayk [probably Richard Burton]’); repr. Connoisseur, July 1980 (cover); Sotheby’s NY, 22 May 1985 (28); and Art Newspaper, Oct. 2010, p.5.
When offered to the NPG (offer 14/80) this was regarded as a doubtful (and too elderly) likeness of Burton, and it is not thought to depict him but to have been begun in Egypt and completed in Paris on Seddon’s return journey. In 1973, however, the then owner stated that her mother, who received the work from Burton’s sister, had been told by Burton himself that it was a portrait (correspondence from Mrs F. Leigh, 1973, NPG NoS [Burton]) and the similarities of date and pose suggest how it could be seen to relate to Seddon’s portrait drawing of Burton above.

Oil on canvas, 940 x 1600mm, by Wilhelm Gentz, Sir Richard Burton leaving for Mecca, whole-length, facing spectator, mounted on camel, with other figures mounted and on foot, desert city in background; untraced. Repr. Christie’s, 28 Jan. 1955 (114). Gentz was a German Orientalist artist of the same age as Burton and could have met him in Egypt in the early 1850s, but if this work depicts Burton it is likely to be a later imaginative reconstruction.

Oil sketch on board, 420 x 280mm, ascribed to ‘circle of Edwin Long’, head-and-shoulders to right, wearing Arab headdress; untraced. Repr. Sothebys, Barnwell Manor Sale, 28–30 May 2002 (1092). Traditionally identified as Sir Richard Burton and from the collection of the late Duke of Gloucester, but appearing to represent an unidentified Arab man by an equally anonymous artist-traveller.

Posthumous portraitsback to top

Casts of left hand and left foot; Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDORL 02372L. Photographs of casts of face, hand and foot, Orleans House G., LDROL02373L, album 1, p.1; repr. Hastings 1978, pl.37. A cast of Burton’s head was also taken but, according to Burton 1893, vol.2, p.415, this broke in the process. Photographs Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDORL 02410L.

Pen and ink drawing by Albert Letchford, signed lower right, quarter-length on deathbed, Oct. 1890, recumbent to left, profile to left on pillow, rosary on chest; Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDORL 00561L.

Oil painting by Albert Letchford after previous item and photographs (see below, ‘1890’), signed, dated and inscr. ‘Trieste’, life-size, quarter-length, recumbent to left, profile to left on pillow, flowers on chest; untraced. Repr. Hastings 1978, pl.36 (credited to Royal Anthropological Inst. but not now there or in Huntington L.). Glass plate negs by unidentified photographer show this work framed; Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDORL 02395L (and print in album 1, p.7 LDROL 02373L).
A slightly less finished version with different signature; Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 02399.

Medallion by Henry Page, ?profile head; untraced. Exh. RA 1892 (1885).

Oil copies of coloured lithograph originally published in 1855; see above, ‘Self-portraits, 1853’.

publ. 1901
Oil on canvas, attributed to Costantino Borgo Caratti, half-length to front, long moustache, no beard, wearing ‘Arab Costume’ of large keffiyeh as turban and loose jacket; untraced. Repr. as photogravure Burton 1901, frontispiece, with facsimile signature; Brodie 1967, pl.2; Lovell 1998, pl.11 (where described as taken from Travels[sic] on Three Continents, dated c.1850 and captioned ‘Mirza Abdullah the Bushiri’); and Godsall 2008, pl.6 (where dated c.1848, described as ‘wearing the native dress he adopted while working in the field for the Sind survey’ and credited to Mary S. Lovell).

Three imagined designs by Arthur David McCormick:
(a) whole-length to front, standing amid crowd of Somali men; untraced. Repr. Burton 1901, facing p.96 (captioned ‘The Attack on the Camp at Berbera’).
(b) rear view, three-quarter-length, wearing bush hat, shaking hands with African ruler; untraced. Repr. Burton 1901, facing p.213 (captioned ‘Burton visits the King of Dahomé’).
(c) signed with initials lower right ‘A.D. M’C’, whole-length, wearing large hat, standing on raft with others; untraced. Repr. Burton 1901, facing p.266 (captioned ‘Shooting the rapids on the Rio das Velhas, Brazil’); and Lovell 1998, pl.33.

Medallion by unidentified artist, embossed ‘Sir Richard F Burton KCMG 1821–1890’ and Arabic words; Royal Asiatic Soc., London. The ‘Burton Medal’.

Copper bust, 450 x 380 x 200mm (including base), by Sandy A.M O’Connor, inscr. on front ‘Burton’, left ‘Sandy A. M. O’ and back ‘1821–1890’, head-and-shoulders with stiff, upturned collar and pointed beard, eyes to left; RGS, London, Artefact FRR [Image S0021156]. Four casts made; one offered to NPG (offer 55/94); cast 4 repr. Christie’s, 17 Sept. 1998 (82).

Photographsback to top

Albums formerly belonging to the Burtons are in the Orleans House Gallery, Richmond-upon-Thames, together with a collection of 39 glass plate photographic negatives acquired in 1999.

Photographs by unidentified photographer, showing Burton seated on floor wearing a voluminous burnous, two known poses:
(a) 60 x 43mm, inscr. above ‘Capt. R. F. Burton / I. Army, F.R.G.S’ and below ‘PPC’, whole-length to left, facing forward, seated against a wall; glass plate neg. Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 02401L; RGS, London, PR/050365 [Image S0011680]. Repr. Hastings 1978, pl.3; and Christie’s, 16 July 1993, p.8 (credited to RGS).
Oil painting by L. Fernandez and R. Jacobsen based on (a) commissioned by C. Ondaatje in 1997; RGS, London, Artefact Main Hall [Image S0011679]. Repr. Christopher Ondaatje, Sindh Revisited, 1997 (front cover).
(b) (known as ‘the crouching picture’), similar to (a) but more upright, whole-length, seated on floor, arms clasped round knees, tassels of hood visible; glass plate neg. Orleans House G., Twickenham, 02416L. Repr. Wright 1906, vol.1, p.123; Orleans House 2002, p.30; and Christie’s, 7 Apr. 2004 (213) .

Photographs by unidentified photographer of ‘Lieutenant Burton’, said to have been taken in Aden, two known poses:
(a) 94 x 64mm, three-quarter-length, facing front, seated on chair to right with legs crossed, book held open on lap, wearing open-neck shirt with braid on lapels and check trousers; neg. RGS, London, PR/026481. Repr. Hastings 1978, pl.2; and Christie’s, 7 Apr. 2004 (213).
Oval head-and-shoulders vignette from (a) repr. Brodie 1967, pl.1 (as ‘hitherto unpublished’ from coll. Quentin Keynes); and Christie’s, 7 Apr. 2004 (213, p.186).
Oval engraving by J. Cooper after drawing by W.J. Allen after vignette repr. Burton 1865, frontispiece.
(b) three-quarter-length, near-profile to right, seated on chair, legs and arms crossed, same clothing as (a); repr. Christie’s, 7 Apr. 2004 (213).

Image by unidentified photographer, head-and-shoulders vignette, half-profile to right, wearing high standalone collar; Wiltshire Record Office. Repr. Lovell 1998, pl.15 (as ‘prior to Somalia expedition’).

Photograph by unidentified photographer, whole-length to right, seated, knees crossed, wearing white shirt without collar or cufflinks, cigarette in mouth, holding long spear-like pole; sepia print from album, Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 02373L, album 1, p.2 (captioned ‘Richard Burton in his tent in Africa’ but looks more like studio backdrop). Repr. Burton 1893, vol.1, frontispiece; Bookman, May 1896, p.48; Brodie 1967, pl.10 (where dated c.1862); Hastings 1978, pl.11 (picture credit Royal Anthropological Soc.); Lovell 1998, pl.30 (title taken from Isabel Burton’s album, but picture credit to Zanzibar National Archives); Godsall 2008, pl.17 (captioned ‘Studio portrait of Burton sitting in his tent on the East African Expedition’); and Jeal 2011, between pp.318–19 (captioned ‘Richard Burton in his tent in Somaliland’).

?early 1860s
Photograph by unidentified photographer, half-length, half-profile to left, long straggly moustache, wearing pale striped open-neck shirt or caftan, arms crossed on chairback with ormulu fitting; glass plate negs, Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 02387L and 02397L. Repr. Burton 1875, vol.2, frontispiece; Wright 1906, vol.1, p.177 (reversed, profile to right, and dated to 1862); and Hastings 1978, pl.12 (captioned ‘Burton in his Spanish shirt’, dated to 1864 and said to have been taken in a London studio). Used as the basis for cover image of Brodie 1967 (paperback ed.)

Photograph by unidentified photographer, whole-length, standing in family group at Wardour Castle; family album (where dated to Jan. 1863), Wiltshire Record Office. Repr. Lovell 1998, pl.26; and Godsall 2008, pl.22. Other group photographs from the same visit are included in the album.

Photograph by Lord Brownlow, Madeira, whole-length to right, looking to front, seated, top hat in hand, behind wife in garden; family album, Wiltshire Record Office. Repr. Lovell 1998, pl.25.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, Madeira, whole-length, standing wearing white sheet, behind wife, during charade performance; family album, Wiltshire Record Office. Repr. Lovell 1998, pl.27.

Albumen prints by Ernest Edwards with Alfred William Bennett, Apr. 1865, three known poses:
(a) carte-de-visite, 88 x 58mm, whole-length to right, facing forward, with trimmed moustache but no beard, standing leaning back with both arms against chairback, in studio before painted backcloth showing elegant drawing room; RGS, London, PR/050267 [Image S0014192]. Repr. Hastings 1978, pl.27 (where credited to Elliott & Fry and RGS, dated to 1883 and captioned ‘with his hair dyed black’).
(b) carte-de-visite, 87 x 68mm, whole-length slightly to left, seated on floor in Eastern costume; NPG x14771. Exh. Camera Portraits, NPG, London, 1989; David Livingstone and the Victorian Encounter with Africa, NPG, London, 1996; repr. Reeve & Walford 1863–7, vol.3, 1865, p.73; Rogers 1996, p.77; Jeal et al. 1996, p.130; and Jeal 2011, facing p.318.
(c) carte-de-visite, nearly whole-length, half-profile to right, seated on floor in Eastern costume; repr. Hastings 1978, pl.8; TLS, 13 June 2008, p.21, accompanying review of Ilya Troyanov, Der Weltensammler (The Collector of Worlds: A Novel of Sir Richard Francis Burton), Munich, 2006.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, head-and-shoulders to right; repr. Lovell 1998, pl.35 (captioned as showing Burton aged 46 as HM Consul in Brazil).

Woodburytype, 112 x 90mm, by Lock & Whitfield, head-and-shoulders; colls NPG x4917 and NPG Ax17479; The Rob Dickins Coll., Watts G., Compton, COMWG2008.163.1101; and New York PL, 1164774. Repr. Cooper 1876–83, ser. 1, 1876, facing p.4; ILN, 1 Nov. 1890, p.552; and Horne 2001, between pp.98–9.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, quarter-length to left, wearing leather-trimmed jacket; print Orleans House G., Twickenham, 02373L, album 2, p.1. Repr. as engr. (with facsimile signature) Burton 1893, vol.2, facing p.195.

Photograph by unidentified photographer, head-and-shoulders, profile to left, forked beard, hair brushed forward, wearing dark coat over white shirt in studio setting; vignette Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 02373L, album 1, p.8. Repr. Stisted 1896, frontispiece (captioned ‘Aetat 69’).

?early 1880s
Sepia cabinet photograph, 165 x 110mm, by J.B. Rottmayer & Co., Trieste, signed by sitter and inscr. in Arabic, half-length, profile to left, standing behind low marble shelf, hands behind body; repr. Sotheby’s, 11–12 July 2002 (149).

Photograph by unidentified photographer, half-length to front, short white hair, grizzled beard, wearing high-buttoned dark jacket with watch-chain; RGS, London. Repr. Hastings 1978, pl.28 (where dated and captioned ‘in failing health’).

Photograph by G.N. Miller, Folkestone, whole-length to front, seated outdoors on upright chair, cigar stub in mouth, wearing pale top hat, with wife seated on ground to right and Dr F.G. Baker standing behind; print Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 02373L, album 2, p.3. Repr. Wright 1906, vol.2, p.181; and Hastings 1976, pl.30 (no picture credit). According to Mrs F. Leigh of Folkestone, this photograph was taken on 24 October 1888, shortly before Burton left Britain for the last time (letter from F. Leigh to NPG, 25 Aug. 1969, NPG NoS [Burton]).

Photographs by unidentified photographer in Maloja Hotel, Engadine, Switzerland, Sept. 1890, two known poses:
(a) whole-length, seated with wife in group including Henry Morton Stanley and others; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.
(b) whole-length, seated wearing fez, with H.M. Stanley; King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Album 5153.

Photographs by Frederick Grenfell Baker, Sept./Oct. 1890, seven images reg. for copyright 1899 May 3, 14 glass plate negatives offered for sale at Christie’s, 27 Sept. 1996 (63), including:
(a) 160 x 120mm, rear view, whole-length, wearing striped shirt, seated at writing table in his bedroom at Trieste, Austria; reg. for copyright 1899 May 3: National Archives (COPY 1/440/276); print Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL02373L, album 1, p.31. Repr. Wright 1906, vol. 2, p.211; Christie’s, 29 Sept. 1996 (63, one of 14 glass negs by Baker); and Lovell 1998, pl.49. This image was the basis for the drawing by Albert Letchford listed above, ‘Paintings, drawings, sculptures and prints, 1889–1890 (c)’.
(b) 152 x 107mm, three-quarter-length, seated with cane and top hat, next to wife, in the garden of their house in Trieste; reg. for copyright 1899 May 3: National Archives (COPY 1/440/278); glass plate neg. Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 02413L. Repr. Brodie 1967, p.22.
(c) whole-length, standing, hands on back of garden bench, wife seated to left holding cane; print Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 02373L, album 1, p.33. Repr. Orleans House 2002, p.28.
(d) 150 x 108mm, whole-length to front, wearing fez, standing at foot of steps in the garden of his house at Trieste; reg. for copyright 1899 May 3: National Archives (COPY 1/440/279); glass plate neg. Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 02411L. Repr. Wright 1906, vol.2, p.225; and Dearden 1936, facing p.238.
(e) 150 x 105mm, whole-length, near-profile to left, wearing fez, standing at foot of steps in the garden of his house at Trieste; reg. for copyright 1899 May 3: National Archives (COPY 1/440/279); glass plate neg. Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 02402L; print formerly with Royal Anthropological Inst., now Huntington L. Repr. Wright 1906, vol.2, p.220(b); and Hastings 1978, pl.31.
(f) 152 x 106mm, head-and-shoulders, near-profile to left, wearing fez; reg. for copyright 1899 May 3: National Archives (COPY 1/440/280); glass plate negs Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDORL 02381L and LDROL 02405L.
(g) 151 x 112mm, head-and-shoulders, profile to left, wearing pale-coloured top hat; reg. for copyright 1899 May 3: National Archives (COPY 1/440/280); glass plate negs Orleans House G., Twickenham, LCROL 02408L and 02422L.
(h) 157 x 103mm, half-length, wearing top hat, seated to right on garden bench, hands crossed on handle of walking stick; reg. for copyright 1899 May 3: National Archives (COPY 1/440/308); glass plate negs Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDORL 02396L, 02398L and 0400L. Repr. Lovell 1998, pl.52.
(i) half-length, seated at dining table of house in Trieste, with wife to left; print Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL02373L, album 1, p.23. Repr. Wright 1906, vol.2, p.167; Hastings 1978, pl.32; and Lovell 1998, pl.48.
(j) half-length, seated at dining table, leaning back in chair, with wife to right on opposite side and Albert Letchford behind; print Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL02373L, album 1 p.24. Repr. Wright 1906, vol.2, p.213.
(k) whole-length, seated at table, with wife, Albert Letchford and servant to left; print Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 02373L, album 1, p.25. Repr. Hastings 1978, pl.25.
(l) seated, wearing top hat in garden with wife and man in bowler hat; glass plate neg. Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDORL 02382L.

Undated photographsback to top

Cabinet card, 142 x 98mm, by unidentified photographer; print King Baudouin Foundation Coll./Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, 5342.

Carte-de-visite by Adolphe Beau, head-and-shoulders; ref. Christie’s, 7 Apr. 2004 (213).

Posthumous photographsback to top

Photographs by Frederick Grenfell Baker, taken after death on 20 Oct. 1890, three known views:
(a) 96 x 72mm, head-and-shoulders, profile to left, lying in bed, bald, rosary laid on chest; reg. for copyright 1899 May 6: National Archives (COPY 1/440/309); print Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 02373L, album 2, p.5. Repr. Wright 1906, vol.2, p.241; and Dearden 1936, facing p.254.
(b) 99 x 76mm, head slightly less profile to left and slightly more torso visible; glass plate neg. Orleans House G., Twickenham, 02406L.
(c) 105 x 80mm, whole-length, profile to left, lying in bed; reg. for copyright 1899 May 6: National Archives (COPY 1/440/310).

Photograph by unidentified photographer, possibly Baker, head-and-shoulders, recumbent to right in coffin in the bedroom at Trieste, flowers covering chest; print Orleans House G., Twickenham, LDROL 02373L, album 2, p.6.
These images were used for the untraced deathbed painting by Albert Letchford (see ‘Paintings, drawings, sculptures and prints, 1890’).

Dr Jan Marsh