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Early Victorian Portraits Catalogue

Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881), Historian and essayist; Trustee of the National Portrait Gallery

A fairly full list of Carlyle's portraits is given in I. W. Dyer, A Bibliography of Thomas Carlyle's Writings and Ana (1928), section C, prepared by J. A. S. Barrett, and section D, by J. L. Caw, pp 533-53. The iconography below is much fuller, and corrects several inaccuracies, but it does not include photographs or caricatures. There are several photographs in the NPG, in Carlyle's House, London, and in Carlyle's birthplace, Ecclefechan, Scotland.

1833
Engraving published Fraser's Magazine, VII (June 1833), facing 706, as no.37 of Maclise's 'Gallery of Illustrious Literary Characters'. Pencil study of 1832: Victoria and Albert Museum.

1834
'The Fraserians' by D. Maclise, engraving published Fraser's Magazine, XI (January 1835), between 2 and 3. Two pencil studies: Victoria and Albert Museum.

c.1835
Water-colour by R. Dighton. Carlyle's House, London.

1838
Painting by S. Laurence. Collection of Thomas Carlyle (great-nephew of the sitter).
Exhibited RA, 1841 (565). Engraved by J. C. Armytage (example in NPG), for Home's A New Spirit of the Age, 1844.

Drawing by S. Laurence. Carlyle's House, London.
Reproduced D. A. Wilson, Carlyle to 'The French Revolution' (1927), frontispiece.
Two copies by Caroline Fox: one in the collection of the Fox family; the other sold Laurence Sale, Puttick and Simpson, 12 June 1884 (lot 182), now in the collection of Major Sir Charles Pym. Another copy, inscribed 'D. Maclise 1825’, but clearly not by him, is reproduced Glasgow Herald, 5 February 1924, p 9.

c.1938
Drawing by S. Laurence. Berg Collection, New York Public Library.

Drawing by S. Laurence. British Museum.

c.1839
Drawing by Count A. D'Orsay. Sotheby's, 13 February 1950 (lot 216), bought Colnaghi.
Lithographed by R. J. Lane, published J. Mitchell, 1839 (example in NPG), lithograph reproduced D. A. Wilson, Carlyle on Cromwell and Others (1925), facing p 64. Copy: Carlyle's House, London.

1841
Drawing by S. Laurence. Carlyle's House, London.
Reproduced New Letters and Memorials of Jane Welsh Carlyle, edited A. Carlyle (1903), II, frontispiece.

1842
Painting by S. Gambardella. See Jane Welsh Carlyle: Letters to her Family, edited L. Huxley (1924), pp 45, 53 and 85.

1844
Painting by J. Linnell. Scottish NPG (plate 151).
Exhibited RA, 1844 (428). Reproduced as an engraving A. T. Story, Life of John Linnell (1892), I, 301.

'Dickens Reading The Chimes to his Friends', drawing by D. Maclise. Victoria and Albert Museum.
Reproduced D. A. Wilson, Carlyle on Cromwell and Others (1925), facing p 272.

c.1848
Bust by H. Weigall. Crystal Palace Collection, 1854.
Exhibited RA, 1848 (1437).

1849
Drawing by S. Laurence. Collection of Lord Northampton.
Reproduced J. A. Froude, Carlyle: his Life in London (1884), I, frontispiece.

c.1850
Drawing by an unknown artist. Collection of H. P. Rohde.

1851
Medallion by T. Woolner. Example at Mount Allison University, New Brunswick (see NPG 1241).

1852-65
'Work' by F. Madox Brown. City Art Gallery, Manchester.
Ford Madox Brown Exhibition, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 1964 (25), and elsewhere.
Figure of Carlyle based on a photograph (example in the archives of the City Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham). Pencil studies of Carlyle and Maurice: City Art Gallery, Manchester. Reduced replica (dated 1863): City Museum and Art Gallery, Birmingham. Carlyle must have been painted into the picture in the later stages of its production, from the evidence of his appearance.

1855
Medallions by T. Woolner (see NPG 1241).

Painting by R. S. Tait. Carlyle's House, London.
Exhibited RA, 1856 (153).

1857-8
Painting by R. S. Tait (with his wife at 5 Cheyne Row). Carlyle's House, London (plate 150).
Exhibited RA, 1858 as 'A Chelsea Interior'. Reproduced G. Reynolds, Painters of the Victorian Scene (1953), facing p 27.

1857
Drawing by S. W. Rowse. Collection of Charles Norton, Boston, 1883.
Etched by A. S. Solvoff for The Correspondence of Carlyle and Emerson (1883), II, frontispiece.

1859
Drawing by H. and W. Greaves. Carlyle's House, London.

Drawing by C. B. Birch (NPG 2520).

c.1860
Cameo by F. Anderson. Exhibited RA, 1860 (880).

1861
Lithograph by T. R. Way (on horseback), after a photograph, lithograph reproduced New Letters of Thomas Carlyle, I, frontispiece.

1865
Plaster busts by T. Woolner. Philosophical Institute, Edinburgh, and Observatory, Maxwelltown.

1866
Marble bust by T. Woolner. University Library, Edinburgh.

Marble bust by Mrs D. O. Hill (modelled in 1866). Exhibited RA, 1868 (1131). Possibly the marble bust by Mrs Hill at Carlyle's Birthplace, Ecclefechan.
Another bust, also modelled in 1866, was exhibited RA, 1867 (1164).

1868-77
Paintings by G. F. Watts (see NPG 1002).

1869
Painting by J. Archer (after a photograph by Elliott and Fry). Carlyle's House, London.
Engraving by J. Brown, after the same photograph, with 1865 autograph (example in NPG).

1869-70
Painting by M. Gordigiani (after a photograph by Mrs Cameron). Collection of Professor Spranger, Florence, 1926. Reproduced Connoisseur, LXXVI (1926), 174, where said to be 'from life'.

1870
Drawing by W. Greaves (partly based on a photograph). Scottish NPG.
Other versions: (1) J. S. Maas & Co, 1963 (dated 1871). (2) B. F. Stevens and Brown, 1942. (3) Cecil Higgins Museum, Bedford. (4) Collection of C. J. Sawyer (signed and dated 1872). (5) Sotheby's, 14 December 1966 (lot 195), bought Sawyer. (6) Sotheby's, 30 April 1970 (lot 2), bought Stevens and Brown.
Oil versions: (1) Scottish NPG (dated 1879). (2) Sotheby's, 17 July 1963 (lot 1), bought F. Salmon. (3) Sotheby's, 14 December 1966 (lot 194), bought Sawyer. (4) Collection of Mr Thruston, 1921.
A full-length oil portrait of Carlyle by Greaves, similar in pose to Whistler's portrait of 1873, but the head based on the Scottish NPG drawing of 1870, was sold at Sotheby's, 20 April 1966 (lot 22), bought Woolley. A portrait by Greaves is in Carlyle's Birthplace, Ecclefechan. The figure of Carlyle appears in some of Greaves' topographical drawings of Chelsea; one of these is reproduced T. Pocock, Chelsea Reach (1970), facing p 65.

Water-colour by 'Ape' (C. Pellegrini). Vanity Fair Sale, Christie's, 5 March 1912 (lot 128).
Coloured lithograph published Vanity Fair, 22 October 1870.

1873
Painting by J. M. Whistler. City Art Gallery, Glasgow.
Reproduced D. Sutton, Nocturne: the Art of James McNeill Whistler (1963), plate V, facing p 136. Study for this portrait: Art Institute, Chicago.

Bust by J. D. Crittenden. Edinburgh Public Library.
Exhibited RA, 1874 (1465).

c.1873
Medallion by G. Morgan. Exhibited RA, 1873 (1482).

1874
Drawing by Sir G. Scharf (NPG 1794).

Statuette by Sir J. E. Boehm. Terra-cotta in Glasgow Museum and Art Gallery, bronze cast in Carlyle's House, London (see NPG 658).

1875-81
Plaster and marble statues and busts by Sir J. E. Boehm (see NPG 658). Cast of hands (see NPG 1623).

1875
Etching by A. Legros (examples in the Scottish NPG and the British Museum).

Water-colour by Mrs H. Allingham (seated in his garden, reading). Reproduced The Graphic, XIII
(1876), frontispiece. Etched by C. O. Murray, etching exhibited RA, 1882 (1294).

Drawing by an unknown artist (signed 'T. H.'). Collection of Sir C. H. Metcalfe, 1929.

Medallions and medals by Sir J. E. Boehm (see NPG 658).

1876
Painting by R. Herdman. Scottish NPG. A related drawing of 1875 is in the collection of Mrs Dance.

Etching by A. Legros (example in NPG), reproduced D. Hannay, 'Some Portraits of Carlyle', Magazine of Art (1884), p 80.

1877
Painting by A. Legros. Scottish NPG.

Painting by Sir J. E. Millais (NPG 968).

c.1877
Bronze medallion by A. Legros. Examples in Scottish NPG, Kgl Skulpturensammlung, Dresden, and Manchester City Art Gallery.

1878
Water-colour by Mrs H. Allingham (seated in his study). Scottish NPG.
Between 1875 and 1879, Mrs Allingham painted some thirteen water-colours of Carlyle, mostly of his head alone. Four of these are at Carlyle's House, London. The rest are widely scattered.

1879
Plaster bust by W. Brodie. Scottish NPG.

Marble bust by W. Brodie. University College, Dundee.

1881
Drawing attributed to himself. Sotheby's (printed books), 9 October 1968 (lot 896).

Drawing by an unknown artist. Scottish NPG.

Engraving by Sir H. Herkomer (example in NPG).

Six etchings by H. Helmick (after photographs and sketches), published Etching Society (examples in NPG).

Two drawings by Mrs H. Allingham (after death, 5 February 1881). Carlyle's House, London.

Death mask by Sir A. Gilbert (NPG 1361).

1882
Three water-colours by J. Paterson. Scottish NPG.

1883
Water-colour by W. Young. Scottish NPG.

c.1883
Medallion by C. Emptmeyer. Exhibited RA, 1883 (1656).

1884
Stone medallion by C. F. Voysey. Carlyle's House (exterior), London.
Plaster cast: Carlyle's House.

c.1884
Etching by W. Hole, reproduced Hole, Edinburgh University Portraits.

1889
Marble bust by D. W. Stevenson. Carlyle's House, London.

c.1895
Painting by E. Crowe, based on a drawing of 1879. Exhibited RA, 1895 (674).

1895
Stone medallion by F. Thomas. NPG (exterior).
Reproduced Magazine of Art (1895), p 431.

c.1897
Bronze bust by D. McGill. Exhibited RA, 1897 (2059).

1904
Plaster bust by J. Tweed. Carlyle's House, London.
Exhibited 14th Annual Exhibition, Royal Society of Portrait Painters, 1904 (266).

Undated
Painting attributed to L. Fildes (bears signature). Collection of Paul Ramey, USA.
Apparently the portrait reproduced D. A. Wilson and D. W. MacArthur, Carlyle in Old Age (1934), frontispiece, where it is said to have been painted in Sir H. Herkomer's studio.

Etching by G. Pilotell (example in British Museum).

Lithograph by J. H. Lynch, after a daguerreotype (example in NPG).

Woodcut by M. Jackson, after T. Scott (example in British Museum).

Drawing by E. M. Ward (NPG 2894).

Drawing by H. Furniss (NPG 3558).

Water-colour by an unknown artist. Scottish NPG.

Two water-colours by unknown artists. Carlyle's Birthplace, Ecclefechan.

Drawing by S. Laurence (reading a book). Formerly collection of H. N. Pym.
Oil version, Laurence sale, Puttick and Simpson, 12 June 1884 (lot 179), bought Smith and Elder.

Drawing by J. Andrews (based on a photograph). Christie's, 22 November 1912 (lot 1).

Various drawings by the 9th Earl of Carlisle: (1) Collection of Lady Anna Macleod. (2) Collection of Mrs W. Nicholson. (3) Reproduced Magazine of Art (1884), p 79. (4) Exhibited Winter Exhibition, Grosvenor Gallery, 1880 (523). (5) City Museum and Art Gallery, Carlisle (with William Morris), exhibited George Howard and his Circle, Carlisle, 1968 (119).

Portrait by J. W. Carmichael. Carlyle's Birthplace, Ecclefechan.

Carlyle Memorial by K. Brown. Kelvingrove Park, Glasgow.
A bust by Dr P. MacGillivray is in the Kelvingrove Art Gallery.

Marble bust by an unknown sculptor. Castle Ashby.

Wallace Monument, Stirling.

Etching by L. Richepin (example in Aberdeen Art Gallery); engraving by F. Croll, after a daguerreotype by Beard (example in NPG); engraving by C. Aikmann (example in Carlyle's Birthplace, Ecclefechan).



This extended catalogue entry is from the out-of-print National Portrait Gallery collection catalogue: Richard Ormond, Early Victorian Portraits, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1973, and is as published then. For the most up-to-date details on individual Collection works, we recommend reading the information provided in the Search the Collection results on this website in parallel with this text.