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Later Victorian Portraits Catalogue

William Holman Hunt (1827-1910), Pre-Raphaelite painter

Painter; born 2 April 1827, in London. Trained at Royal Academy Schools where met fellow-students with whom he formed Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood 1848; exhibition debut 1845; first major success with The Light of the World (RA 1854; Keble Coll., Oxford) and The Awakening Conscience (RA 1854; Tate); travelled to Egypt and Syria 1854–6, to Italy 1865–7 and to Jerusalem 1869–72, 1875–8 and 1892, building his reputation largely on scriptural subjects, solo exhibitions and engravings, which gained worldwide distribution; in 1865 married Fanny Waugh, sister-in-law of Thomas Woolner, who died in 1866, and ten years later married her sister Edith Waugh, against family wishes and English law, not repealed until 1907; although never elected RA, regarded as a doyen of the art world by 1880; in 1905 awarded the Order of Merit and published an influential two-volume account of his early career, recording PRB history; died 7 September 1910, in London; ashes buried at St Paul’s Cathedral; Hunt’s art plummeted in popularity during the twentieth century, but later revived and is now regarded as a major force in both Pre-Raphaelitism and High Victorian painting.[1]

In 1860 he was described as ‘a very genial, young-looking creature, with a large, square, yellow beard, clear laughing blue eyes, a nose with a merry little upward turn in it, dimples in the cheek, and the whole expression sunny and full of simple boyish happiness. His voice is most musical.’[2] Temperamentally, Hunt was a man of ‘dogged perseverance and patience’,[3] who placed principles above personal advancement; together with his travels and unconventional marriage, this led to some social and professional isolation, although many friends remained close.

Dr Jan Marsh

Footnotesback to top

1) Bronkhurst 2004. We are also indebted to Dr Bronkhurst for her contributions to this entry.
2) The Journals of Caroline Fox 1835–71, ed. W. Monk, London, 1972, p.231–2.
3) Jacomb-Hood 1925, p.57.

Referencesback to top

Ahlund 2009
Ahlund, M., ed., The Pre-Raphaelites, exh. cat., Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, 2009.

Amor 1989
Amor, A.C., William Holman Hunt: The True Pre-Raphaelite, London, 1989.

Beerbohm 1904
Beerbohm, M., The Poets’ Corner, London, 1904.

Beerbohm 1943
Beerbohm, M., The Poets’ Corner, [London, 1904] enlarged ed., 1943.

Beerbohm 1922
Beerbohm, M., Rossetti and His Circle, London, 1922.

Beerbohm 1987
Beerbohm, M., Rossetti and His Circle, [London, 1922] repr. with additions, New Haven and London, 1987.

Bennett 1969
Bennett, M., comp., William Holman Hunt, exh. cat., Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, 1969.

Bennett 1970
Bennett, M., ‘Footnotes to the Holman Hunt Exhibition’, Liverpool Bulletin, vol.13, pp.26–64.

Bills & Webb 2007
Bills, M., and D. Webb, eds, Victorian Artists in Photographs: [The World of G.F. Watts]. Selections from the Rob Dickins Collection, exh. cat., Watts Gallery, Compton, 2007.

Bronkhurst 2004
Bronkhurst, J., ‘Hunt, William Holman (1827–1910)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004; online ed., October 2009.

Bronkhurst 2006
Bronkhurst, J.E., William Holman Hunt: A Catalogue Raisonné, 2 vols, New Haven and London, 2006.

Caneva 2002
Caneva, C., Il corridoio vasariano agli Uffizi, Florence, 2002.

Coleridge 1908
Coleridge, M.E., Holman Hunt, London, 1908.

Collingwood 1898
Collingwood, S.D., The Life and Letters of Lewis Carroll, London, 1898.

Conner 1983
Conner, P., ed., The Inspiration of Egypt, exh. cat., Brighton Museum and Manchester City Art Gallery: Brighton, 1983.

Coombs et al. 1986
Coombs, J.H., and others, eds, A Pre-Raphaelite Friendship: The Correspondence of William Holman Hunt and John Lucas Tupper, Ann Arbor, MI, 1986.

Cox & Ford 2003
Cox, J., and C. Ford, Julia Margaret Cameron: The Complete Photographs, London, 2003.

Cruise 2011
Cruise, C., Pre-Raphaelite Drawing, London, 2011 (to accompany exh. The Poetry of Drawing: Pre-Raphaelite Designs, Studies and Watercolours, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery and Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, 2011).

Cumming 2005
Cumming, E., Phoebe Anna Traquair: 1852–1936, Edinburgh, 2005.

Darbyshire 1998
Darbyshire, L., ‘“The Studios of celebrated Painters”: A Series of Portraits by John Ballantyne RSA’, Apollo, May 1998, pp.21–7.

Dearden 1999
Dearden, J.S., John Ruskin: A Life in Pictures, Sheffield, 1999.

Denker 1995
Denker, E., In Pursuit of the Butterfly: Portraits of James McNeill Whistler, exh. cat., National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC, 1995.

Drower 1985
Drower, M.S., Flinders Petrie: A Life in Archaeology, London, 1985.

Dunn 1984
Henry Treffry Dunn: Recollections of Dante Gabriel Rossetti and His Circle, ed. R. Mander (enlarged ed. of work first published 1904, ed. G. Pedrick).

Elzea 2001
Elzea, B., Frederick Sandys: A Catalogue Raisonné, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2001.

Florence 1971
Firenze e l’Inghilterra Rapporti artistici e culturali dal XVI al XX seculo, exh. cat., Palazzo Pitti, Florence, 1971.

Fredeman 1960
Fredeman, W.E., ‘The Pre-Raphaelites in Caricature: “The Choice of Paris: An Idyll” by Florence Claxton’, Burlington Magazine, Dec. 1960, pp.523–7.

Fredeman 1991
Fredeman, W.E., A Rossetti Cabinet: A Portfolio of Drawings by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Ian Hodgkins & Co., Stroud, Glos., 1991.

Fredeman 2002–10
Fredeman, W.E., ed., The Correspondence of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 9 vols, Woodbridge, Suffolk, 2002–10.

Funnell & Warner 1999
Funnell, P., and M. Warner, Millais: Portraits, exh. cat., NPG, London, 1999.

Gallatin 1913a
Gallatin, A.E., The Portraits and Caricatures of James McNeill Whistler: An Iconography, with twenty examples, ten hitherto unpublished, London and New York, 1913.

Gallatin 1918
Gallatin, A.E., Portraits of Whistler: A Critical Study and an Iconography, London and New York, 1918.

Gernsheim 1975
Gernsheim, H., Julia Margaret Cameron: Her Life and Photographic Work, New York, 1975.

Gissing 1936
Gissing, A.C., William Holman Hunt: A Biography, London, 1936.

Gould 2004
Gould, V.F., G.F. Watts: The Last Great Victorian, London, 2004.

Hacking 2000
Hacking, J., Princes of Victorian Bohemia: Photographs by David Wilkie Wynfield, exh. cat., NPG, London, 2000.

Hall 1997
Hall, N.J., Max Beerbohm Caricatures, New Haven and London, 1997.

Hart-Davis 1972
Hart-Davis, R., A Catalogue of the Caricatures of Max Beerbohm, London, 1972.

Hewison, Warrell & Wildman 2000
Hewison, R., I. Warrell and S. Wildman, Ruskin, Turner and the Pre-Raphaelites, exh. cat., Tate Britain, London, 2000.

Holman-Hunt 1960
Holman-Hunt, D., My Grandmothers and I, London, 1960.

Holman-Hunt 1969
Holman-Hunt, D., My Grandfather, His Wives and Loves, London, 1969.

Houfe 1995
Houfe, S., The Work of Charles Samuel Keene, Aldershot, Hants, 1995.

Hubbard 1944
Hubbard, H., Some Victorian Draughtsmen, Cambridge, 1944.

Hughes & Edmonds 1876
English Celebrities of the Nineteenth Century, Part 1, Hughes & Edmonds, London, 1876.

Hunt 1905
Hunt, W.H., Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, 2 vols, London, 1905

Hunt 1913
Hunt, W.H., Pre-Raphaelitism and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, 2nd ed., 2 vols, London, 1913.

Jacobi 2006
Jacobi, C., William Holman Hunt: Painter, Painting, Paint, Manchester, 2006.

Jacomb-Hood 1925
Jacomb-Hood, P., With Brush and Pencil, London, 1925.

Jones et al. 1996
Jones, S., and others, Frederic Leighton 1830–1896, exh. cat., Royal Academy, London, 1996.

Jopling 1925
Jopling, L., Twenty Years of My Life, 1867 to 1887, London, 1925.

Lago 1982
Lago, M., ed., Burne-Jones Talking, London, 1982.

Lamb 2004
Lamb, J.F., ‘Ballantyne, John (1815–1897)’, ODNB, Oxford, 2004.

Lochnan & Jacobi 2008
Lochnan, K., and C. Jacobi, William Holman Hunt and the Pre-Raphaelite Vision, exh. cat., Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, 2008.

Maas 1975
Maas, J., Gambart: Prince of the Victorian Art World, London, 1975.

Maas 1984
Maas, J., The Victorian Art World in Photographs, London, 1984.

Marsh 1996
Marsh, J., The Pre-Raphaelites: Their Lives in Letters and Diaries, London, 1996.

Marsh 1999
Marsh, J., Dante Gabriel Rossetti: Painter and Poet, London, 1999.

Marsh 2005a
Marsh, J., The Pre-Raphaelite Circle (NPG Insights series), London, 2005.

Meynell & Farrar 1893
Meynell, A., and F.W. Farrar, William Holman Hunt: His Life and Work [The Art Annual for 1893: Christmas number of the Art Journal], London, 1893.

Millais 1899
Millais, J.G., The Life and Letters of Sir John Everett Millais, 2 vols, London, 1899.

Newman & Watkinson 1991
Newman, T., and R. Watkinson, Ford Madox Brown and the Pre-Raphaelite Circle, London, 1991.

Noakes 1978
Noakes, A., William Frith: Extraordinary Victorian Painter, London, 1978.

Ormond 1980
Ormond, R., ‘Artists in their Studios’, Christie’s Review of the Season 1979, London, pp.72–4.

Ormond & Ormond 1975
Ormond, L., and R. Ormond, Lord Leighton, London, 1975.

Parris 1984
Parris, L., ed., The Pre-Raphaelites, exh. cat., Tate, London, 1984.

Reynolds 1995
Reynolds, S., William Blake Richmond: An Artist’s Life, Norwich, 1995.

Rose 1981
Rose, A., Pre-Raphaelite Portraits, Yeovil, Somerset, 1981.

Schleinitz 1907
Schleinitz, O. von William Holman Hunt, Bielefeld, 1907.

Stirling 1926
Stirling, A.M.W., ed., The Richmond Papers, London, 1926.

Surtees 1971
Surtees, V., The Paintings and Drawings of Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828–1882): A Catalogue Raisonné, 2 vols, Oxford, 1971.

Swanson 1977
Swanson, V.G., Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema: Painter of the Victorian Vision of the Ancient World, London, 1977.

Tait & Walker 2000
Tait, H., and R. Walker, The Athenaeum Collection, London, 2000.

Taylor & Wakeling 2002
Taylor, R., and E. Wakeling, Lewis Carroll Photographer: The Princeton University Library Albums, Princeton, NJ, 2002.

Thirlwell 2003
Thirlwell, A., William and Lucy: The Other Rossettis, New Haven and London, 2003.

Treuherz et al. 2003
Treuherz, J., and others, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, exh. cat., Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool, London, 2003.

Walery 1888–96
Walery [Stanislas Julian, Count Ostrorog], ed., Our Celebrities: A Portrait Gallery … Portraits by Walery, 5 vols (vol.1 ed. L. Engel), London, 1888–96.

Walkley 1994
Walkley, G., Artists’ Houses in London 1764–1914, Aldershot, 1994.

Weaver 1986
Weaver, M., The Whisper of the Muse: The Overstone Album and other photographs by Julia Margaret Cameron, exh. cat., Getty Museum, Malibu, 1986.