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Later Stuart Portraits Catalogue

King James II (1633-1701), Reigned 1685-88

Note: A study of the medals showing James II was made by H. Farquhar, The British Numismatic Journal, VI, 1910, pp 213-85. See also Medallic Illustrations of The History of Great Britain and Ireland, British Museum, between LX and CXI.

Childhood and Continental exile 1633-60
James’s portraits generally showed him in armour, reflecting active service abroad, on land and sea, from 1652.


1635-36
Painting by Van Dyck, Three Eldest Children of Charles I, with Charles, Prince of Wales, and Mary, Princess Royal, whole-lengths. Royal Collection (O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, no.151; S. J. Barnes, N. de Poorter, O. Millar & H. Vey, Van Dyck, a Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, 2004, iv.61).

1635
Painting by Van Dyck, Three Eldest Children of Charles I, with Charles, Prince of Wales, and Mary, Princess Royal, whole-lengths. Galleria Sabauda, Turin (264; S. J. Barnes, N. de Poorter, O. Millar & H. Vey, Van Dyck, a Complete Catalogue of the Paintings, 2004, iv.60). The many versions include the half-length in the Suffolk collection, English Heritage (Suffolk Collection, 1975, no.35, illus.).

1637
Painting by Van Dyck, Five Eldest Children of Charles I, see NPG 267.

1639
Painting by Cornelius Johnson, see NPG 5104.

c.1645
Painting by William Dobson; full half-length, left hand at waist. Royal Collection (O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, no.205, pl.96); a half-length extended to a kit-cat by Jonathan Richardson in the early 18th century.

1647
Painting by Peter Lely; bust-length painted oval, dated. Syon House. Probably an ad vivum study for the following.

Painting by Peter Lely, Three Children of Charles I, with Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and Princess Elizabeth, whole-lengths. Petworth (cat. 1920, p 73, no.149; illus. R. B. Beckett, Lely, 1951, no.79, pl.14, and O. Millar, Sir Peter Lely, exhibition catalogue, NPG, 1978, no.7).

Painting by Peter Lely, standing three-quarter-length, left hand on hip, helping his father Charles I to open a letter. Syon House (illus. R. B. Beckett, Lely, 1951, no.78, pl.13, and O. Millar, Sir Peter Lely, exhibition catalogue, NPG, 1978, no.6). Version from the Scottish NPG (PG 858) at Duff House.

c.1647
Miniature by John Hoskins, Three Children of Charles I, with Henry, Duke of Gloucester, and Princess Elizabeth, bust-lengths. Fitzwilliam Museum (3877; illus. R. Bayne-Powell, Catalogue of Portrait Miniatures in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 1985, p 131; British Portrait Miniatures in the Fitzwilliam Museum, 1998, p 45, and D. Foskett, Samuel Cooper and his contemporaries, exhibition catalogue, NPG, 1974, no.152).

1651
Etching by W. Hollar, bust-length oval to left with Garter ribbon and badge; inscribed D. Teniers pinxit and aet 18 1651 (Pennington 1424), loosely resembling the 1647 Lely Syon portrait. Some resemblance to a miniature attributed to David des Granges sold Christie’s, 23 October 1979, lot 29.
Another Hollar etching, the equestrian The most illustrious & High Borne Prince Iames Duke of Yorke (illus. J. Callow, The Making of King James II, 2000, pl.2), evidently a confabulation (Pennington 1474iv; see Connoisseur, LXXXI, 1928, pp 141-45).

c.1653-55?
Miniature attributed to Louis du Guernier, with fair hair and Garter ribbon. Rijksmuseum (A4317) lent to the Mauritshuis. Exhibited as by Alexander Cooper, Age of Charles II, RA, 1960, no.621, and Orange and the Rose 1964, no.82.

c.1656-60
Painting attributed to Charles Wautier, half-length in armour, with Garter ribbon, his right hand supporting an upright baton on a table. Royal Collection (O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, no.215, pl.92). A version at Godinton House (just visible in Country Life, CXXXII, 1962, p 1397). Related portraits engraved by P. de Jode after Woutier (G. Vertue, Notebooks, Wal. Soc., XXIV, 1936, p 60), and Th. van Merlen II. These engravings also relate to a standing three-quarter-length in armour, left hand on hip, baton in right hand, helmet to right and ship in left distance, sold Sotheby’s, 16 November 1966, lot 125 (as Riley).

1656
Miniature by Louis du Guernier, with long fair hair and Garter ribbon, dated. Rijksmuseum (A4316).

1660
Painting by Simon Luttichuys, engraved C. van Dalen as half-length oval to right in armour with lace jabot and long hair (illus. F. W. H. Hollstein, Dutch & Flemish Etchings Engravings and Woodcuts 1450-1700, 135). A three-quarter-length by Luttichuys dated 1659 is at Christ’s Hospital, Horsham (exhibited Glorieuze Revolutie, Nieuwe Kerke, Amsterdam, 1988, no.11).

As Lord High Admiral 1660-85

1660
Miniature by Samuel Cooper; to right, own hair, embroidered doublet. Duke of Buccleuch (illus. S. Lloyd, Portrait Miniatures in the collection of the Duke of Buccleuch, 1996, no.42, as Cooper and studio). A replica dated 1661 in the Victoria and Albert Museum (P.45.1955; illus. J. Murdoch, Seventeenth-century English Miniatures in the Collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum, 1997, pp 56-58, and D. Foskett, Samuel Cooper and his contemporaries, exhibition catalogue, NPG, 1974, no.96). A copy by Petitot, from Strawberry Hill, sold Sotheby’s, 8 June 1995, lot 190 (illus. J. J. Foster, The Stuarts, 1902, II, p 57; see Walpole Corr., IX, p 412); another by Susannah-Penelope Rosse from the collection of the Duke of Beaufort, inscribed 1660, sold Christie’s, 13 December 1983, lot 83 (illus. D. Foskett, Samuel Cooper and his contemporaries, exhibition catalogue, NPG, 1974, no.195).

c.1660-64
Painting by Peter Lely, three-quarter-length standing to left in armour, with Garter ribbon, left hand on hip, right holding baton. Royal Collection (R. B. Beckett, Lely, 1951, no.263; O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, no.240, pl.100). A related bust-length miniature attributed to Charles Beale II sold Christie’s, 27 November 1984, lot 53.
Versions of a related type, with left hand on sword hilt by his side, baton in right pointing down, coronet to left, clearly not by Lely himself, were in the Thornby Hall sale, Christie’s, 22 October 1984, lot 560, sold Bonham’s, 9-10 July 2002, lot 121, and at Ugbrooke Park (the left arm bent).

Painting by John Greenhill; bust-length oval to left with gold cape and Garter ribbon, possibly after Lely. Dulwich Picture Gallery (DPG 416). Much resembling the Lely head in the Royal Collection (O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, no.240) and loosely resembling in pose and exactly in dress Lely’s seated three-quarter-length of the Duke in the Scottish NPG (PG 901), see NPG 5077.

c.1660-65
Painting by Peter Lely, see NPG 5077.

c.1660
Painting by Peter Lely, full three-quarter-length seated facing left, a baton in his right hand, his right index finger pointing into the picture. Scottish NPG (PG 901), from the Clarendon collection (R. B. Beckett, Lely, 1951, no.262; illus. O. Millar, Sir Peter Lely, exhibition catalogue, NPG, 1978, no.32). Perhaps the finest of Lely’s portraits of the Duke; versions at Gorhambury and a bust-length oval at Berkeley Castle.

c.1661-65
Miniature by Samuel Cooper, signed; bust-length oval in armour to left, own hair, white jabot with black ribbon. Christie’s, 27 March 1984, lot 299 (illus. D. Foskett, Samuel Cooper and his contemporaries, exhibition catalogue, NPG, 1974, no.105).

c.1663-65
Painting by Peter Lely, three-quarter-length standing in armour, baton in right hand, left on helmet. Royal Collection (O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, no.239). Probably the unfinished The King’s Head only dead coloured in James II’s collection, subsequently completed. Millar cites a comparable head sold Sotheby’s, 17 February 1960, lot 169 (as A Nobleman). A variant, wearing a corslet and with embroidered sleeves, in the Miss Colyear Dawkins sale, Christie’s, 18-23 January 1858, lot 383 (Sir George Scharf’s Trustees’ Sketch Books, 1:14).

c.1665-70
Painting by Peter Lely, standing three-quarter-length to left in buff coat with sash, right arm resting on a fluted cippus, inscribed DUKE OF GLOUCESTER. Private collection, from the Ashton Court sale, Pritchard’s, 10 June 1947, lot 996. A bust-length version was with Sir William Hart-Dyke c.1925.

Painting by Peter Lely, see NPG 5211.

Painting attributed to Peter Lely, standing three-quarter-length in Garter robes, plumed cap in left hand before him, a fluted column to the right. Glamis Castle.

Miniature attributed to Nicholas Dixon, three-quarter-length in Garter robes to right, plumed hat on a table before him. Art Institute of Chicago (60.127). Relates closely to the Lely type portrait of c.1665-70 at Glamis.

Painting by Peter Lely, standing whole-length to left in state robes, left hand pointing down, right at breast. Royal Collection (O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, no.241, with two copies, nos. 272 and 273, the former now Government Art Collection 9121, the latter at Holyrood). Versions at Longleat; Castle Howard; Ingatestone; Christie’s, 9 June 1939, lot 65, and 23 November 2004, lot 10; Sotheby’s NY, 11 June 1981, lot 238. Half-lengths at Burton Constable, Holker, Petworth (cat. 1920, p 76, no.504), and Syon House. A bust-length version from Bisham Abbey, attributed to Pieter Borsseler, sold Christie’s, 30 July 1982, lot 7, was copied by Henry Bone (R. J. B. Walker, ‘Henry Bone’s Pencil Drawings in the National Portrait Gallery’, Wal. Soc., LXI, 1999, no.296) and in enamel by H. P. Bone in 1845 (Christie’s, 24 June 1975, lot 68) and 1852 (Sotheby’s, 25 November 1974, lot 46, and Gorringe’s, Bexhill, 7-8 December 2004, lot 732; see R. J. B. Walker, ‘Henry Bone’s Pencil Drawings in the National Portrait Gallery’, Wal. Soc., LXI, 1999, no.296). A crude bust-length derivation is in the Uffizi (LC219), acquired 1723.

c.1665
Painting in the manner of Remigius van Leemput, small whole-length to left in Garter robes, plumed hat in right hand, an anchor and ships at sea beyond. Royal Collection (O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, no.233).

Painting by Peter Lely, standing three-quarter-length to right with breastplate and sash over buff coat, Garter ribbon; left hand on hip, right holding staff resting on a cannon. Corsham Court. Version in Corby Castle sale, Phillips, 18 May 1994, lot 237. Reversed engraving, showing embroidered sleeves, published by A. Browne by 1684 (J. Chaloner Smith, British Mezzotinto Portraits, 42; S. Turner, ‘Alexander Browne’, Wal. Soc., LXX, 2008, B.20, fig.91). A version formerly in the Bute collection shows patterned sleeves and no cannon (illus. J. Fea, James II and his Wives, 1908, f.p.36); a copy at Dunrobin.

Miniature by Samuel Cooper, bust-length oval in armour to left, wearing wig. Royal Collection (G. Reynolds, The sixteenth and seventeenth-century Miniatures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1999, no.119, illus.).

c.1668-74
Painting by Peter Lely completed by Benedetto Gennari, three-quarter-length group, with his first Duchess and their two daughters, Mary (left) and Anne; a dog in the right foreground. Royal Collection (O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, no.269; P. Bagni, Benedetto Gennari e la bottega del Guercino, 1986, p 153, no.62; illus. D. Green, Queen Anne, 1970, f.p.25), from the Ditchley sale, Sotheby’s, 24 May 1933, lot 67. An adaptation of the composition seen in NPG 5077, with the addition of the dog and the Duke’s daughters - who appear about five and eight years old, although Gennari did not come to England until 1674 (when they would have been nine and twelve).

1670-72
Miniature by Samuel Cooper, dated, bust-length oval to right in armour with Garter ribbon, his own hair, dated 167. [sic]. National Maritime Museum, acquired from the Duke of Buccleuch in 1941 (illus. D. Foskett, Samuel Cooper and his contemporaries, exhibition catalogue, NPG, 1974, no.131).

c.1670
Miniature by Samuel Cooper, bust-length oval to left, in armour with full wig. Chiddingstone Castle (illus. D. Foskett, Samuel Cooper and his contemporaries, exhibition catalogue, NPG, 1974, no.132).

c.1672-73
Painting by Henri Gascar, whole-length all’antica in yellow corslet with red cloak, his armour lying beside him, attended by a page. National Maritime Museum (BHC1285; illus. A. Ribeiro, Fashion and Fiction, 2005, p 279; O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, p 21n). Commissioned to commemorate James’s victory at the battle of Solebay in 1672 (see J. Callow, The Making of King James II, 2000, p 133).

c.1673-75
Painting by Henri Gascar, a similar head to the Greenwich portrait (see c.1672-73 above) in a bust-length oval, in armour. Christie’s, Glasgow, 12 June 1996, lot 186. A small three-quarter-length version sold Sotheby’s, 13 July 1994, lot 16 (with pendant of the Queen).

c.1673?
Miniature by Pieter van Slingeland, half-length in armour with Garter ribbon jewelled George, baton in right hand, left on hip, a fluted column behind him, signed. Royal Collection (illus. G. Reynolds, The sixteenth and seventeenth-century Miniatures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1999, no.164a, as possibly ad vivum). A version exhibited Portrait Miniatures from The Clarke Collection, Scottish NPG, 2001, no.22 illus.

c.1674
Painting by Peter Lely, three-quarter-length standing to right in armour, left hand on hip, right holding baton, plumed helmet behind him. Engraving pub. R. Tompson (J. Chaloner Smith, British Mezzotinto Portraits, 50; C. Blackett-Ord, ‘Richard Tompson’, Wal. Soc., LXX, 2008, T.40, fig.34). Versions in the Suffolk collection, English Heritage (R. B. Beckett, Lely, 1951, no.264; Suffolk Collection, 1975, no.38, illus.); Cirencester (Earl Bathurst, Catalogue of the Bathurst Collection … , 1908, pp 10-11, illus.); Dyrham Park; Ecton Hall sale, Sotheby’s, 12 October 1955, lot 35; Sotheby’s, 13 July 1988, lot 154; from Newnham Paddox and the Manor House, Ashby St Ledgers, sold Phillips, 19 July 1995, lot 229.
Miniature copies by Nicholas Dixon at Welbeck (R. W. Goulding, Catalogue of Pictures belonging to … the Duke of Portland …, C. K. Adams ed., 1936, nos. 678, 689) and Richard Gibson, sold Sotheby’s, 9 June 1994, lot 30 (with companion piece of Mary of Modena).
Related half-length versions formerly at Malahide Castle; Drummond Castle, and sold Sotheby’s, 6 May 1970, lot 131. R. B. Beckett, Lely, 1951, under no.264, listed another bust-length version at Arbury.

Painting by Peter Lely, whole-length standing to left in Garter robes, left hand on hip, right hand holding robe (the frequent Lely pose for Garter Knights). Royal Hospital Chelsea (transferred from the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, where there is now a copy by Mavis Johns 1984 (BHC4172)). Other versions include those in the Middle Temple (B. Williamson, Catalogue of Paintings and Engravings in the possession of The Hon. Society of the Middle Temple, 1931, p 17, acquired in 1684); Burton Agnes; Guildford Guildhall; Kedleston, with inscribed date 1674; Narford; from the Wharton collection (O. Millar, Burl. Mag., CXXXVI, 1994, p 529); Christie’s, 30 January 1987, lot 121 (from Melton Constable), and in the Palacio de Liria, Madrid. A weak version from the Weavers’ Company, London, is on loan to the Guildhall Art Gallery, London. A later version at Brechin Castle shows James as King, with the crown, orb and sceptre on table to the left. Reversed half-length versions include those at Chirk Castle and in the St Louis Art Museum MI; for a related portrait, see c.1665-70 (Glamis) above.

c.1675
Painting by Simon Verelst, standing three-quarter-length in Garter robes, right hand on hip, signed. Formerly with Lord Bolton (see O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, under no.293).

Edward (le) Davis engraved an outsized oval bust of James II as Duke of York (A. Griffiths, The Print in Stuart Britain, British Museum, 1998, p 208).

c.1676
Painting by Peter Lely, bust-length oval in armour, engraved A. Blooteling (illus. F. W. H. Hollstein, Dutch & Flemish Etchings Engravings and Woodcuts 1450-1700, 171; A. Griffiths, The Print in Stuart Britain, British Museum, 1998, no.152).

1677
Painting by Peter Lely, whole-length standing to right in Garter robes, right hand on hip, left on sword hilt. Commissioned in 1677 by the Bridewell Royal Hospital, sold Christie’s, 22 November 1985, lot 98. Versions at Helmingham, and formerly at Alloa House, sold Sotheby’s, 17 November 1976, lot 38; a three-quarter-length version at Ampleforth has been on permanent loan from the Deramore collection since 1966.
Examples of a variant, with the right hand by his side, at Euston and Holkham; another sold Christie’s, 20 November 1992, lot 5.
Three unfinished portraits of the King by Lely were listed in the Royal Collection in 1688 (O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, under no.240): no.1185 The King at halfe length unfinished, no.1190 the King in Armour at halfe length, and no.1192 The King’s Head onely dead coloured. Of these Millar supposed that two may have been completed later to become those in the Royal Collection catalogued as O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, nos. 239 and 240 and see NPG 5211 above.
Sixteen copies of Lely’s portraits of the Duke of York (four heads, six half-lengths and six whole-lengths), together with a double half-length of the Duke and late Dutchess of York, were in the Lely sale, 18 April 1682 (Burlington Magazine, LXXXIII, 1943, pp 188, 191).

1681
Painting by ‘Mr Ellis’, whole-length. Herbert Art Gallery, Coventry (CH18); ‘large full length … very bad’ (Sir George Scharf’s Sketch Books, 101:56).

1682
Engraving by D. Loggan, one of a series of five full-length plates of the Royal family made for Moses Pitt (see A. Griffiths, The Print in Stuart Britain, British Museum, 1998, under no.140).

c.1682
Painting by Godfrey Kneller, engraved as a bust-length oval in armour by R. White 1682 (see J. D. Stewart, Godfrey Kneller, 1983, no.383, p 20n42; illus. A. Griffiths, The Print in Stuart Britain, British Museum, 1998, no.138).

c.1683-85
Painting by Godfrey Kneller, bust-length oval in armour with the ribbon of the Garter, slightly to right with head turned to front; the head very close to NPG 666. Royal Collection (O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, no.334); the only Kneller of James listed in Royal Collection. Version sold Christie’s, 24 July 1969, lot 94.

1684
Painting by Godfrey Kneller, see NPG 666 and 6277.

c.1684-86
Painting by John Riley, standing three-quarter-length in armour with Garter ribbon, left hand on hip, right holding baton, plumed helmet to left, distant ships to right. Bodleian Library (Mrs R. L. Poole, Catalogue of Portraits in the possession of the University, Colleges, City and County of Oxford, I, p 72, no.180; Catalogue of Portraits in the Bodleian Library by Mrs R. L. Poole completely revised and expanded by K. Garlick, 2004, p 190); received in 1720 from Bishop Crew who described it in his will as ‘drawn by Mr Riley’ (see under Mrs R. L. Poole, Catalogue of Portraits in the possession of the University, Colleges, City and County of Oxford, I, p 65, no.161). Vertue (G. Vertue, Notebooks, Wal. Soc., XX, 1932, p 131) said James and his Queen were pleased to be drawn by Riley.

c.1684
Painting attributed to Wissing, standing three-quarter-length in armour with Garter ribbon, left hand on hip, baton in right hand, a military action in the right distance. Oxford, Town Hall (Mrs R. L. Poole, Catalogue of Portraits in the possession of the University, Colleges, City and County of Oxford, I, p 249, no.749).

before 1685
Painting by Godfrey Kneller, three-quarter-length in armour, left hand on hip, staff in right hand, Garter ribbon and waistband, helmet on the left. Saltram (J. D. Stewart, Godfrey Kneller, 1983, p 36n48 as late 1680s). Version, reversed with crown to right, sold Christie’s, 3 April 1987, lot 119. Variant called Kneller in the Government Art Collection (O/8; illus. The Public Catalogue Foundation, Government Art Collection, p 162).

As King James II 1685-88

1685
Painting by Ann Killigrew, small whole-length, standing in richly embroidered coat, wearing Garter insignia. Royal Collection (O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, no.333; illus. Burlington Magazine, XXVIII, 1915-16, p 113). James acceded in March 1685 and the artist died in June.

Painting by Benedetto Gennari, whole-length to right in Garter robes. Painted for James, but his Queen persuaded him to give it to the Pope; Mentmore sale, Christie’s, 25 March 1977 lot 2465 as Wissing, and last sold Christie’s, 12 November 1999, lot 4 (illus. P. Bagni, Benedetto Gennari e la bottega del Guercino, 1986, no.71, and see p 175, no.81; D. C. Miller, Apollo, CXVII, 1983, pp 24, 28, 29nn30,31 illus.). Gennari also made a half-length copy for himself (P. Bagni, Benedetto Gennari e la bottega del Guercino, 1986, p 175, no.81).
Gennari painted three untraced bust-length portraits of the King, two in London and one at Saint-Germain (P. Bagni, Benedetto Gennari e la bottega del Guercino, 1986, pp 160, nos.130-31, and 163, no.5).

Equestrian copper statue by William Larson. Newcastle-upon-Tyne; torn down in 1688, later melted down and cast into bells. A miniature copy in the National Gallery of Ireland (M. R. Toynbee, Country Life, CVIII, 1950, p 1007). Anon. engraving (illus. J. Callow, The Making of King James II, 2000, f.p.183).

Painting by Godfrey Kneller engraved P. Vandre­banc 1685 as bust-length oval in armour, ‘after a portrait by Kneller of c.1685’ (J. D. Stewart, Godfrey Kneller, 1983, no.386; illus. A. Griffiths, The Print in Stuart Britain, British Museum, 1998, no.205).

c.1685-88
Unattributed statue on a pedestal in the market place at King’s Lynn seen by Vertue (G. Vertue, Notebooks, Wal. Soc., XXVI, 1938, V, p 122).

Unattributed terracotta bust in Garter robes. Scottish NPG (PG 2052); the type was also copied c.1900. (Manifattura di Signa, terre cotte artistiche e decorative, c.1900, tav.liii, no.112).

Unattributed terracotta bust, see NPG 5869.

c.1685-89
Painting attributed to Willem Wissing, whole-length seated in Garter robes, pointing left with his right hand, his crown on a table to the right. Royal Hospital, Chelsea. Exhibited Age of Charles II, RA, 1960, no.363. Companion piece to the Wissing of Mary of Modena with the Duke of Buccleuch. The head is similar to the Clarendon Wissing. An eccentric whole-length derivation belongs to the states offices, Jersey CI.

c.1685
Painting attributed to Kneller, whole-length in Garter robes, right hand on hip, left hand holding edge of robe; crown in right background. Arundel Castle, with companion piece of Mary of Modena (J. M. Robinson, Arundel Castle, 1994, pp 72, 75); seen at Worksop c.1727 by Vertue (‘at Worksop Mannor. ye seat of ye Duke. of Norfolks King James 2d. & his Queen Kneller. at len.’; G. Vertue, Notebooks, Wal. Soc., XX, 1932, p 35). Version in the Caledonian Club and Government Art Collection (O/98; illus. The Public Catalogue Foundation, Government Art Collection, 2007, p 162.).

Painting by Willem Wissing, signed, three-quarter-length standing in armour with Garter ribbon, left hand on pedestal by his helmet and crown, right holding baton. Clarendon collection (R. Gibson, Catalogue of Portraits in the collection of the Earl of Clarendon, 1977, no.84 illus.; ‘the only portrait of James by Wissing’). Version at Helmingham Hall. Variant with a waist-sash, left hand on hip and right resting on his helmet, a military action in the left background, recorded at Stonyhurst (illus. M. V. Hay, The Enigma of James II, 1938, fp.). Half-length version in the Government Art Collection (O/49; illus. The Public Catalogue Foundation, Government Art Collection, p 242).

The whole-length portrait of James II by Wissing formerly in the German Imperial collection (with a Mary of Modena) was probably a variant of this pattern (H. Börsch-Supan, ‘Die Gemälde aus dem Vermächtnis der Amalie von Solms und aus der Oranishen Erbschaft in den Brandenburgisch-preussischen Schlössern’, Zeitschrift für Kunstgeschichte, XXX, 1967, p 194, no.82).

Bronze, attributed to Arnold Quellin, whole-length figure as a Roman emperor, right hand at breast, left extended. Victoria and Albert Museum (A20-1948; D. Bilbey, British Sculpture 1470-2000, a concise catalogue of the collection at the Victoria and Albert Museum, 2002, p 10, no.11, illus.). The design compares with two by John Nost the Elder for statues of William III (see J. Physick, Designs for English Sculpture 1680-1860, 1969, figs. 30, 31).
In the Van Nost collection sale, 17 April 1712, lot 41 was ‘James II, big as the Life, in Stone, of Mr Quellin’.

Unattributed painting, whole-length in Garter robes, pointing with his right hand to the crown by his plumed hat behind him. Combe Abbey sale, Sotheby’s, 27 November 1968, lot 78.

Unattributed painting, whole-length in Garter robes, left hand on hip, right on sword hilt by his side, plumed hat on table to left. Christie’s, 10 April 1992, lot 15; formerly Melton Constable, Norfolk (Prince Frederick Duleep Singh, Portraits in Norfolk Houses, II, p 36, no.44). A three-quarter-length version in a Swedish private collection (from the Penruddocke family).

Miniature by Susannah-Penelope Rosse, in armour with Garter ribbon, long wig. Royal Collection (illus. G. Reynolds, The sixteenth and seventeenth-century Miniatures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1999, no.160, and D. Foskett, Samuel Cooper and his contemporaries, exhibition catalogue, NPG, 1974, no.189). Versions at Rosenberg Castle (19-228), and sold Sotheby’s, 4 July 1989, lot 252.

Painting attributed to Willem Wissing, standing three-quarter-length to right in armour with Garter ribbon, left hand on helmet, right holding baton, a dog by his side. Two versions are in the Rijksmuseum (A879 and A1228); another at Ampleforth has been on permanent loan from the Deramore collection since 1966. A bust-length miniature derivation is also in the Rijksmuseum (A4438).

A whole-length portrait of James II by ‘Wisen’ was in the P. H. Lancrinck sale, 23 January ff. 1693 (Burlington Magazine, LXXXVI, 1945, pp 32, 35).

Other portraits of James attributed, perhaps correctly, to Wissing include a standing three-quarter-length to right in armour with red cloak, left hand on hip holding baton, Christie’s, 17 April 1953, lot 132, and C. H. Collins Baker, Lely and the Stuart Portrait Painters, 1912, II, p 18n, listed portraits by Wissing at Hengrave and Ditchley (Ditchley sale, Sotheby’s, 24 May 1933, lot 92).

c.1685?
Painting by Godfrey Kneller, bust-length oval in state robes; engraved J. Smith 1703 (J. Chaloner Smith, British Mezzotinto Portraits, 143; illus. O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, f.p.25, fig.XIII, as ‘bust of the state portrait’; J. D. Stewart, Godfrey Kneller, 1983, p 34n37, no.387). The head was used for an armoured bust at Lennoxlove (J. D. Stewart, Godfrey Kneller, 1983, no.384) and much resembles the head in NPG 666. Two engravings by Pieter Schenck, bust-length in Garter robes, described as after Kneller (F. W. H. Hollstein, Dutch & Flemish Etchings Engravings and Woodcuts 1450-1700, 669, 671), differ in the angle of the head and the lace cravat. G. S. Layard, Catalogue raisonné of engraved British portraits from altered plates, 1927, no.29, described a print by Schenck, three-quarter-length seated to right in Garter robes, successively modified to show Charles II, James II and William III (F. W. H. Hollstein, Dutch & Flemish Etchings Engravings and Woodcuts 1450-1700, 526, 670, 965).
Vertue (G. Vertue, Notebooks, Wal. Soc., XXII, 1934, p 15) recorded c.1723 that ‘Lord Aston had the Originals painted by Sr G Kneller of K James 2d. & Queen. at length’. He also recorded (Wal. Soc., XVIII, 1930 p 50) that ‘The Pictures of King James 2d. & Queen Mary drawn with the Pen very curiously by Francati an Italian from their Original Pictures by Kneller 1685.& drawn in his house.for which pictures Francati had 100 guineas. now in possession of Mr George Clark. of Oxon.’

1686
Painting by Nicolas de Largillierre, bust-length oval, in armour with Garter ribbon. National Maritime Museum (BHC2798, acquired 1961). Engraved by I. Beckett (J. Chaloner Smith, British Mezzotinto Portraits, 52) and J. Smith 1686 (J. Chaloner Smith, British Mezzotinto Portraits, 145; S. Turner, ‘Alexander Browne’, Wal. Soc., LXX, 2008, B.21, fig.92). A version in a private collection in 1965 (Country Life, CXXXVII, 1965, p 936). Largillierre had studied under Lely 1675-79 and returned to London in 1686 to paint the King and Mary of Modena.

Stone statue by John Bushnell, for the façade of Southwark Town Hall, ‘in his Royal Habilments with a Sceptre in his Right Hand … standing erect in a beautiful Nich’ (Hatton, New View of London, II, 1708, p 801); pulled down in 1793; in 1834 in a garden in ‘St George’s Road, Kent Road’ (R. Gunnis, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660-1851, 1968, p 74).

c.1686
Painting by John Riley, half-length oval in armour with Garter ribbon. Ashmolean Museum (F732), presented by Elias Ashmole in 1686-87 (Complete Illus. Cat., 2004, p 192; Mrs R. L. Poole, Catalogue of Portraits in the possession of the University, Colleges, City and County of Oxford, I, p 185, no.451; A. MacGregor ed., Tradescant’s Rarities, 1983, no.283, illus., as ‘if not by Riley himself certainly from his studio’).

Marble medallion bust after Jan Roettiers. Victoria and Albert Museum (A.31-1939; D. Bilbey, British Sculpture 1470-2000, a concise catalogue of the collection at the Victoria and Albert Museum, 2002, p 111, no.152, illus.). Comparable with Medallic Illustrations of The History of Great Britain and Ireland, British Museum, LXIII/14 of 1686. Another unattributed oval marble relief was exhibited Age of Charles II, RA, 1960, no.560, lent by Hereward Wake.

1687
Unattributed stone statue, laureate, in Roman armour. University College, Oxford (Mrs R. L. Poole, Catalogue of Portraits in the possession of the University, Colleges, City and County of Oxford, II, p 4, no.13); presented by Sir Edward Hales 1687.

1688
Painting by Godfrey Kneller, dated, whole-length in Garter robes, right hand resting on the crown on a table behind him to the left. Guyzance Hall (J. D. Stewart, Godfrey Kneller, 1983, p 143, no.388, pl.29c). A much reduced copy sold Christie’s South Kensington, 24 November 1994, lot 125.

Painting by Godfrey Kneller, three-quarter-length in armour, baton in right hand, left arm resting on an anchor. Munich, Schloss Nymphenburg; painted for Samuel Pepys (illus. Samuel Pepys Esqre, exhibition catalogue, NPG, 1970, p 27; M. Toynbee, Apollo, XCVIII, 1973, pp 40-42; J. D. Stewart, Godfrey Kneller, 1983, pp 36n48, 82, 143, no.389, pl.83a). Engraved J. Smith 1697 (J. Chaloner Smith, British Mezzotinto Portraits, 142). A half-length oval version was sold as Riley, Sotheby’s 10 July 1970, lot 149.

Sometime after 1688 Kneller boasted that James II and his Queen had ‘sate to me about 36 times a piece, and I know every line and bit in their faces … I could paint King James now, by memory’ (Rawlinson MS, see Letters written by Eminent Persons in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries …, 1813, II, i, p 137).

Bronze statue by Grinling Gibbons and Pierre van Dievoet, all’antica, baton in right hand, left on hip. National Gallery, London, forecourt, since 1948; commissioned by Tobias Rustat and erected in Pebble Court, Whitehall, 1688 (illus. K. Gibson, Apollo, CL, September 1999, pp 27-28). A similarly posed statue in stone, believed to have been set in the facade of the Royal Exchange, is now at Creech Grange, Dorset (K. Gibson in A. Saunders ed., The Royal Exchange, 1997, pp 165-66). Five related figure drawings attributed to Gibbons, but probably by van Dievoet, are in the British Museum (1889.6.3.254, 2-5; E. Croft-Murray & P. Hulton, British Museum,
Catalogue of British Drawings: XVI and XVII centuries, 1960, pp 333-36).

c.1688
Ivory medallion by David Le Marchand. Grims­thorpe Castle (illus. C. Avery, David le Marchand 1674-1726, 1996, no.14).

Exile 1688-1701

c.1690
Painting by an unknown artist, see NPG 366.

c.1690?
Painting attributed to Gennari, whole-length in military uniform with red coat and black hat, with Garter ribbon, crown and orb beside him. Three versions: Sotheby’s, 19 November 1986, lot 32; Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk, sale 1 November 1951, lot 662; with a suit of armour in the right foreground with Spink & Son in 1921 and later with Brig. Trappes-Lomax.

Painting by unknown French artist, oval made up to rectangle in the early 19th century, half-length standing in armour wearing garter ribbon and waistband, right hand on hip, left hand indicating a distant military action. Musée de Versailles (5776; Les Peintures, 1995, II, p 1030).

1691
Painting by Nicolas de Largillierre of James II, Mary of Modena and their son. Untraced (listed E. T. Corp, The King over the Water, Portraits of the Stuarts in Exile from 1689, Scottish NPG, 2001, p 106 as lost).

1695
Painting by Pierre Mignard, dated, seated in Garter robes, his plumed hat on a table at his side, with his wife and two children. Private collection (E. T. Corp, La cour des Stuarts à Saint-Germain-en-Laye, exhibition catalogue, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1992, no.94, illus.). A reduced version in the Royal Collection (2631; E. T. Corp, La cour des Stuarts à Saint-Germain-en-Laye, exhibition catalogue, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1992, no.95, illus. p 23), and five preparatory drawings in the Louvre (31021-31023, 31074; E. T. Corp, La cour des Stuarts à Saint-Germain-en-Laye, exhibition catalogue, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1992, nos 96-100, illus.). D. Piper, Catalogue of the Seventeenth Century Portraits in the National Portrait Gallery 1625-1714, 1963, p 178, recorded a Family Piece by Rigaud at Swynnerton Hall.

c.1695
Engraving published by H. Bonnart, whole-length in French dress with embroidered veston and surcoat, left hand on hip, right holding a baton (illus. R. Sharp, Engraved Record of the Jacobite Movement, 1996, p 46).

c.1698
Painting by François de Troy, standing three-quarter-length to right in armour with ermine-lined cloak and sash, right hand by his side, left holding gloves resting on a table to the right. Horsford Manor (E. T. Corp, La cour des Stuarts à Saint-Germain-en-Laye, exhibition catalogue, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1992, no.101, illus.; listed E. T. Corp, The King over the Water, Portraits of the Stuarts in Exile from 1689, Scottish NPG, 2001, p 106).

1699
Miniature by Thomas Forster, plumbago on vellum, half-length, dated. National Museum, Cardiff (illus. Burlington Magazine, XCVI, 1954, p 395). It is not otherwise known that Forster travelled abroad.

c.1700
Painting by A.-S. Belle after Kneller, kit-cat size, half-length standing in armour with Garter ribbon, right hand resting on baton. Sizergh Castle (E. T. Corp, La cour des Stuarts à Saint-Germain-en-Laye, exhibition catalogue, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1992, no.110, illus.; listed E. T. Corp, The King over the Water, Portraits of the Stuarts in Exile from 1689, Scottish NPG, 2001, p 106; see O. Millar, The Tudor, Stuart and Early Georgian Pictures in the Collection of Her Majesty The Queen, 1963, under no.334). An almost identical portrait by Belle (paired with one of Mary of Modena by Belle after De Troy) is in a private collection (E. T. Corp, La cour des Stuarts à Saint-Germain-en-Laye, exhibition catalogue, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1992, p 118; E. T. Corp, The King over the Water, Portraits of the Stuarts in Exile from 1689, Scottish NPG, 2001, illus. p 50, listed p 106 as c.1712).

1701
Death mask. Musée de Dunkerque. A wax cast, taken in 1752 by the English Benedictines of the rue Saint-Jacques remains with family descendants (E. T. Corp, La cour des Stuarts à Saint-Germain-en-Laye, exhibition catalogue, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1992, no.175, illus.).

1712
Painting by John Scougal, whole-length in robes, baton in right hand, armour at his feet; Glasgow Art Gallery (475), removed from the Old Town Hall, Glasgow. Scougal worked for Glasgow Town Council in 1708/12 and 1715 (see also Anne, Mary II and William III).

Undated
Unattributed coloured wax bust. Ashmolean Museum (N. Penny, Catalogue of European Sculpture in the Ashmolean Museum … , 1992, III, p 203, no.607, illus.)

Histories
Painting by Antonio Verrio, James II giving audience to the Governors, masters, boys and girls of Christ’s Hospital (c.1682-88). Christ’s Hospital, Horsham, where installed 1902 having been moved from London (E. Croft-Murray, Decorative Painting in England, I, Early Tudor to Sir James Thornhill, 1962, p 238b, and 1970, p 318a); James appears as the central seated figure in state robes, his right arm raised towards a portrait of his father (James’s figure apparently derived from the Wissing portrait of c.1685-86, see above). A bodycolour copy which once belonged to Samuel Pepys is in the Yale Center for British Art (B1977.14.6307: P. J. Noon, English Portrait Drawings & Miniatures, Yale Center for British Art, 1979, no.17).

Ivory carving by Matthieu van Beveren c.1685?, an apotheosis of James II, set on a cabinet. Clarence House (illus. J. Cornforth, Clarence House, 1996, p 29).

Painting by Pierre Gobert 1713-15, Apotheosis of James II with his daughter Princess Marie-Louise, originally in the convent at Chaillot (listed E. T. Corp, The King over the Water, Portraits of the Stuarts in Exile from 1689, Scottish NPG, 2001, p 107 as lost; E. & M. S. Grew, The English Court in Exile, 1911, pp 117-18, 349, as by Rigaud).

E. Croft-Murray, Decorative Painting in England, I, Early Tudor to Sir James Thornhill, 1962 records a Triumph of James II at Hoe Place, Woking (p 238a) and a Glorification of James II (since destroyed) for Henry VIII’s Chapel at Windsor (p 241b).

Doubtful Portraits
Painting attributed to J. M. Wright, half-length standing in armour wearing the George on a chain, own long black hair, baton in left hand, right glove on table to left with plumed helmet; behind him the Royal standard hangs from the tent rope. Three versions recorded: Berkeley Castle; Government Art Collection (1636; from Christie’s, 16 May 1952, lot 35; illus. The Public Catalogue Foundation, Government Art Collection, p 315), and Sotheby’s, 3 April 1996, lot 24.

Scharf (Sir George Scharf’s Trustees’ Sketch Books, Oxford 1:78), described a stone figure set above the north door of the Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford, as being James II, but Poole (Mrs R. L. Poole, Catalogue of Portraits in the possession of the University, Colleges, City and County of Oxford, I, p 134), Royal Commission of Historical Monuments, City of Oxford, 1939, p 11, and M. D. Lobell in VCH, Oxfordshire, III, 1965, p 53n52, identify this figure as Charles II.

Unattributed boxwood figure c.1660, possibly the Duke of York, sword in right hand. Victoria and Albert Museum (A.17-1936; D. Bilbey, British Sculpture 1470-2000, a concise catalogue of the collection at the Victoria and Albert Museum, 2002, p 36, no.57, illus.); displayed at Tate Britain 2006.

Enamel by Charles Boit, sold Christie’s, 7 July 1905, lot 1, listed by W. Nisser, Michael Dahl, 1927, cat. p 125, no.25.



This extended catalogue entry is from the National Portrait Gallery collection catalogue: John Ingamells, National Portrait Gallery: Later Stuart Portraits 1685-1714, National Portrait Gallery, 2009, and is as published then. For the most up-to-date details on individual Collection works, we recommend reading the information provided in the Search the Collection results on this website in parallel with this text.