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Early Georgian Portraits Catalogue

Prince James Francis Edward Stuart (1688-1766), Known as 'The Old Pretender'; son of James II

James was painted as an infant by Kneller, engraved by Smith (J. Chaloner Smith, British Mezzotinto Portraits, 1878-83, 246); by an unknown artist holding a fleur-de-lys coronet, collection Mrs R. Morris, [1] and by Benedetto Gennari, [2] Stonyhurst College, formerly Alberoni collection, Rome. A whole length also as a baby, with a King Charles spaniel, inscribed 1691 and attributed to Largillière, now belongs to the Scottish NPG (2191). An engraving, head and shoulders by P. L. van Schuppen lettered as after a Largillière of 1692, has a very similar face mask. A rather primitive half length in a decorated oval, given to P. Mignard, also representing James at about this time, was lent to the 'Historical Portraits' exhibition, Aberdeen, 1859 (102) by the 5th Earl Fife as the sitter's son. [3] It was subsequently, 1946, in the collection of Prince Arthur of Connaught. A further portrait by Largillière was engraved by G. Edelinck, 1692. The double portrait (NPG 976) by this artist is of 1695. An example of a slightly different and later type was at Sotheby's, 9 May 1951, lot 109. A number of miniatures were produced by J. A. Arlaud at St Germain, c.1703-10. A fine example presented to Simon Lord Lovat, now in the Winchilsea collection is inscribed on the back as painted ad vivum, May 1703. Another is at Windsor.

A large number of portraits must have been produced in the decade 1700-10 but remain unclassified. A painting with an old inscription naming de Troy (de Troyes) and dated 1701 (Scottish NPG 909), shows him in civil dress as does another, lent by W. Pollard-Urquhart to the Aberdeen exhibition of 1859 (58), there described as his son Charles. A copy by Mignard, again as Charles, was at Christie's, 8 May 1964, lot 61. An engraving by S. Thomassin, 1702, shows him in profile, to the left, with the prominent chin so noticeable in portraits by Belle. Examples of another group, in breastplate, are in the collections of A. Maxtone Graham, Edinburgh; P. Maxwell Stuart, Traquair House, and in the Scottish NPG (1215). Another was formerly in Lord Brocket's collection, Bramshill. A corresponding engraving by Edelinck, in reverse, is in the Scottish NPG. A variant oil is in the Niedersächsische Landesgalerie (391), Hanover. Another portrait with the same head, the body turned to the left, is in the Palazzo Doria, Rome.

The portrait at Magdalene College, Cambridge, formerly owned by the Fermor family, was painted from another sitting. It was found, after cleaning in 1935, to be inscribed peint à St. Germaine-en-Laye/par François de Troy/en 1704. [4] A whole length at the Scots College, Paris, is given to A. S. Belle and represents James as grand admiral, his helmet held by a page in Polish dress. An oval portrait attributed to the same artist which seems to be a head and shoulders copy of this type, at Christie's, 23 February 1951, lot 133, from the collection of Mark Fawdry, is now owned by the Department of the Environment (British Embassy, Rome). The portrait by Belle in Garter robes, to the right, now known only through the engraving by Louise Horthemels, makes him look a little older and is possibly from a later sitting. The fine three-quarter length in breastplate, to the left, collection Comte Arnaud de Montesquiou-Fezensac uses the same face mask as NPG 348, the type being dated 1712-14. A portrait at Holyrood House since 1931, also given to Belle, shows the sitter as an angel leading his sister by the hand. She died in 1712.

At about this time, on the evidence of apparent age, there occurs a different portrait in Garter robes. Previously given to Luti but now attributed to Francesco Trevisani, it is at Holyrood House, formerly at Hampton Court. A half length, Duke of Alba's collection (68), crudely engraved in Rome, 1717, as by Antonio David, shows James with the Garter and the Thistle over armour. Another portrait in the same collection (67) with the same face mask shows palace fortifications in the background and another, reversed, was at Christie's, 28 March 1969, lot 109, from Heckfield Place, collection Mrs Colin Davy. Datable to c.1720 and attributed to Rigaud when exhibited 'Pictures from Hampshire Houses', 1955 (59), the handling of the head is closer to David than to either Rigaud or Belle. A version belongs to the Marquis de Villefranche.

David was appointed painter to James in 1718 and numerous references to works in the Stuart Papers at this period include a whole length of James, January 1723 with a record of payments made between ‘1718-30'. [5] The face mask of this type differs considerably from the important three-quarter length at Blairs College, 'Royal House of Stuart' exhibition, 1889 (167), in which the sitter points a baton at a map. A version in the collection of W. Pollard-Urquhart, was exhibited Aberdeen, 1859 (55), as by Trevisani; a variant is at Stanford Hall, collection Lord Braye. It has been suggested, on comparison with the Bodleian miniature of the same type and from references in Rawlinson's diary, 1721, that Pesci is the artist. [6] Another type in which the sitter looks older, and with the Tower of London in the background, is in Lord Braye's collection, artist unknown. Purchased by Baroness Braye in Rome c.1807 at the sale of Cardinal York's effects, it has sometimes been linked with the Duke of Alba's three-quarter length (67) given to Vanloo. This, however, would seem incorrect since the Alba portrait is earlier. A head and shoulders, Scottish NPG 1836, a pair with Maria Clementina Sobieska, bequeathed 1956 by Miss Bertha Stewart Parr, may date from this period and is tentatively ascribed to Blanchet. A repetition is in the Alba collection.

Two late profiles are the Blanchet, formerly collection Colonel G. H. Hay, Duns Castle, sold Christie's, 25 March 1966, lot 80 [Editor’s note, 2013: now NPG 5573], and NPG 4535 of c.1741. There follow the full face portrait (NPG 433), probably of the mid-'forties, and miniatures related to the Luti type in Gosford House and the Scottish NPG. These are sometimes called the 'Edgar' type from an example that belonged to James Edgar, secretary to the Jacobite court.

Numerous medals were struck (for example, Scottish NPG nos 32-40, 1322-32, etc.) but, apart from the interesting ivory by A. Pozzi showing the sitter with his sons, the Young Pretender and Cardinal York, at Brodick Castle, there is little sculpture. These three sitters also occur on the family monument by Canova, erected in St Peter's by George III, completed 1819.

Groups
An apparently imaginary account of the landing in Scotland in 1716 was engraved by Pieter Schenk and published in Amsterdam; the central figure of the composition is the subject of an oil. [7] The sitter also appears with Maria Clementina at the time of their marriage, 1719, and an oil attributed to P. L. Ghezzi of the baptism of their first son Charles (b. 1720) is at Dalmeny, collection Lord Rosebery (71). This corresponds with the engraving by Anton Fritz, published in Rome, after August Massucci. An oil by Antonio Gionima, Castel Sant Angelo, Rome, represents the reception of James at Bologna and another, by G. P. Pannini, Hamilton Palace sale, Christie's, 6 November 1919, lot 38, shows him at the ceremony in Rome, 1747, when his son was created cardinal.

1) Previously called James II.
2) Exhibited 'Italian Art and Britain', RA, 1960 (31).
3) Cp miniature in Earl of Haddington collection, Tyningham.
4) The Times, 20 March 1935, letter and illustration, p 18; with Leggatt's, 1948.
5) Extracts from the Stuart papers, Royal Archives, Windsor, relating to portraits, compiled by the Hon. Miss Stuart-Wortley, I, pp 3, 5, ff.
6) Miss A. M. Wrinch (Mrs Alastair Rowan), verbal.
7) Location unknown; photograph in the Scottish NPG archives.


This extended catalogue entry is from the out-of-print National Portrait Gallery collection catalogue: John Kerslake, Early Georgian Portraits, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1977, and is as published then. For the most up-to-date details on individual Collection works, we recommend reading the information provided in the Search the Collection results on this website in parallel with this text.