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George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle

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George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle

after Samuel Cooper
oil on canvas, based on a work of circa 1660
30 1/8 in. x 25 in. (765 mm x 635 mm)
Purchased, 1863
Primary Collection
NPG 154

Sitterback to top

Artistback to top

  • Samuel Cooper (1609-1672), Miniature painter. Artist associated with 111 portraits, Sitter in 4 portraits.

Linked publicationsback to top

  • Piper, David, Catalogue of Seventeenth Century Portraits in the National Portrait Gallery, 1625-1714, 1963, p. 3
  • Saywell, David; Simon, Jacob, Complete Illustrated Catalogue, 2004, p. 7

Subjects & Themesback to top

Events of 1660back to top

Current affairs

The Convention Parliament and Lords proclaim Charles II king after he issues a declaration from Breda offering an indemnity to those who had committed crimes against the crown during the civil war and Interregnum. Charles lands at Dover from The Hague on 25th May to great pomp and ceremony.

Art and science

Diarist Samuel Pepys starts his diary on 1st January, writing in shorthand. The diary became a unique social document, opening with a brief summary of his domestic situation and the political background.
Dutch portrait painter, Peter Lely, is appointed principal painter to Charles II.
Official foundation of the Royal Society.


The Anglo-Spanish War, begun by Lord Protector, Oliver Cromwell, formally ends after the restoration of the British monarchy and peace is made with Philip IV of Spain.

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Laurie Pettitt

17 August 2017, 13:16

Oliver Cromwell's secret weapon: In Edinburgh, in 1650, George Monck was ordered by Cromwell to "Restore order, get people back into the churches and get people trading".
Something that our modern army neglected in the second Iraq war. Beside a successful time as General at Sea, George had a complete power in Scotland based on Cromwell's complete trust. People tell us that Scotland was ruled by a committee of eight in the English Parliament. Shocking! Except for the fact that both James and Charles had also used a committee of eight. People say that the Civil System had broken down, but Baron and Sheriff court records show business as usual. They say that the Ministers of the Church were persecuted, but many had abandoned their flocks and Cromwell had to recruit Ministers from England.
George did exactly what Cromwell ordered, he 'restored order'. He made it that the Insurgents with the King's warrant did not destroy the infrastructure. He made it that the Moss Troopers would be run to ground and their activities, similar to paramilitary groups in Ireland, curtailed. Licensed robbers. So let's not get too involved in the Scottish stories and half truths and look at how Monck, in full obedience to Cromwell's order, saved Britain from years of Civil War and strife.
When Cromwell died, the vultures were circling the weak Protectorate. Armies were being raised in France and even Spain. Generals who had once been faithful to Oliver Cromwell were thinking that they could impose their rule on the British people.
And George Monck knew that he had to fulfil the order. George Monck purged his ranks of the extremists and set out to restore order in England. He did not leave Coldstream to Restore the King. He left Coldstream to restore Order to England.
The Restoration of the King was a by product of the Restoration of Order.
So.... If any Royyals get to read this, I would like to submit that the march from Coldstream to London, not only restored the King, but it also saved Britain from the danger of another set of Civil Wars. The Coldstream Guards should have Honours for that march and the Honours should give them the status as the oldest and most Respected Regiment in the British Army. And those of you who wonder why Oliver Cromwell had left a known Royalist, with Royalist connections, in an insurmountable position in Scotland.... Will have to ask why the Modern Royals have so much to thank Cromwell for?

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