by Unknown artist, background by Hendrik van Steenwyck
oil on canvas, circa 1635
85 in. x 53 1/4 in. (2159 mm x 1352 mm)
Given by Henry Louis Bischoffsheim, 1899
Sitterback to top
- Henrietta Maria (1609-1669), Queen of Charles I. Sitter associated with 88 portraits.
Artistsback to top
This portraitback to top
The architectural background which was painted first is probably by Hendrick van Steenwyck the younger.
Linked publicationsback to top
- Audio Guide
- Smartify image discovery app
- Gibson, Robin, Treasures from the National Portrait Gallery, 1996, p. 39
- Piper, David, Catalogue of Seventeenth Century Portraits in the National Portrait Gallery, 1625-1714, 1963, p. 161
- Ribeiro, Aileen, The Gallery of Fashion, 2000, p. 68
- Ribeiro, Aileen; Blackman, Cally, A Portrait of Fashion: Six Centuries of Dress at the National Portrait Gallery, 2015, p. 86
- Saywell, David; Simon, Jacob, Complete Illustrated Catalogue, 2004, p. 295
- Various contributors, National Portrait Gallery: A Portrait of Britain, 2014, p. 80 Read entry
The youngest daughter of Henry IV of France and Marie de’ Medici, Henrietta Maria married Charles I in 1625. Small, vivacious and charming, she introduced the latest French fashions to the English court. Charles and Henrietta Maria were a devoted couple and had seven children. However, Henrietta Maria contributed to the unpopularity of the monarchy through her conspicuous Roman Catholicism and promotion of Catholic causes. She was actively involved in the civil wars by personally bringing munitions from France and pawning her jewellery to raise funds. She refused to leave England until the war had decisively turned against the King in 1644 and continued her attempts to muster European support for Charles until his execution in 1649. She briefly returned to England following the restoration of her son Charles II to the throne in 1660, before retiring to her native France.
The figure of Henrietta Maria in this portrait is by an unknown artist though it is clearly influenced by Anthony Van Dyck. The architectural background was painted first and is probably by the Dutch painter Hendrik van Steenwyck the Younger (c.1580–1649).
Subjects & Themesback to top
Events of 1635back to top
Current affairsDiscovered by the Earl of Arundel, centenarian Thomas Parr dies, it is claimed, at the age of 152.
Richard Weston, Earl of Portland dies. Though unpopular in the Commons, Portland was an effective Lord Chief Treasurer who succeeded in curbing royal expenditure.
Art and scienceDramatic poet, James Shirley composes The Traitor, dedicating it to literary patron, William Cavendish, Earl of Newcastle. Shirley would later assist Newcastle on a number of the earl's own plays, while benefiting from his patronage.
Postal services are made available to the public.
InternationalAs a result of French first minister, Cardinal Richelieu's foreign policy, France becomes directly involved in the Thirty Years' War.
Elector palatine, Charles Lewis, excluded from the peace of Prague between Emperor Ferdinand II and Electorate of Saxony, travels to England to secure military help from his uncle, Charles I.
Make a donation
Support our Make History appeal and help us transform the Gallery.
A unique range of books, accessories and gifts. Every purchase supports the Gallery’s work.
Bring a familiar face home
Refresh your home gallery with a huge selection of custom art prints .
- 2019 Anniversaries
- Silhouettes display, 2004-05
- Return to Life: A New Look at the Portrait Bust
- William Hazlitt's Spirit of the Age
- Making History: Printed Portraiture in Tudor and Stuart Britain
- Mary, Queen of Scots: Fact and Fiction
- Restoration Lives: Samuel Pepys and His Circle
- Brilliant Women
- Chartist Portraits
- Mary, Queen of Scots
- Nelson: before and after Trafalgar
- Bank of America Merrill Lynch, Art Conservation Project
- Rebel women
- Theodore de Mayerne
- Tudor and Elizabethan matching pairs
- Popular Prints of Victoria and Albert
- Gunpowder, Treason and Plot
- Searching for Shakespeare
Tell us more
Framed & unframed prints
Choose your favourite portrait from our Collection as a framed or unframed print for your home.