Anne Hyde, Duchess of York; King James II
- Extended Catalogue Entry
Anne Hyde, Duchess of York; King James II
by Sir Peter Lely
oil on canvas, circa 1661-1662
55 in. x 75 1/8 in. (1397 mm x 1920 mm)
Sittersback to top
Artistback to top
- Sir Peter Lely (1618-1680), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 843 portraits, Sitter in 19 portraits.
Linked publicationsback to top
- Audio Guide
- Smartify image discovery app
- Cannadine, Sir David (Introduction); Cooper, Tarnya; Stewart, Louise; MacGibbon, Rab; Cox, Paul; Peltz, Lucy; Moorhouse, Paul; Broadley, Rosie; Jascot-Gill, Sabina, Tudors to Windsors: British Royal Portraits, 2018 (accompanying the exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery from The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas, USA, 7 October 2018 -3 February 2019. Bendigo Art Gallery, Australia, 16 March - 14 July 2019.), pp. 112-113, 134-135 Read entry
Anne Hyde was the daughter of Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, Charles II's most powerful minister at the time of his restoration to the throne in 1660. She and James, Charles's younger brother, had begun a relationship while the court was still in exile on the Continent; Anne became pregnant and James promised to marry her. After the Restoration, however, James's marriage prospects became much better and a number of attempts were made, first to prevent this marriage to a 'commoner', and then, after it had taken place in secret, to deny that it had happened. Eventually, with the king's support, there was a general reconciliation and the marriage was acknowledged publicly. It was probably around this time or shortly afterwards that this elegant double portrait was painted by Peter Lely. It is a celebration not just of married love but also of the Stuart family's wealth and military might. Anne was to die young, shortly after the birth of her last child. Both James and Anne were Roman Catholic converts and James later married an Italian Catholic princess, Mary of Modena. He inherited the throne from his brother in 1685 but was ousted three years later to live in exile for a second time until his death in 1701. Two of James and Anne's daughters, however, were eventually to become queens of England: Mary II and Queen Anne, both of whom ruled as Protestants.
- Ingamells, John, Later Stuart Portraits 1685-1714, 2009, p. 121
- Ollard, Richard, Pepys and his Contemporaries, 2015, pp. 46-7
- Saywell, David; Simon, Jacob, Complete Illustrated Catalogue, 2004, p. 332
- Williamson, David, Kings and Queens, 2010, p. 120
- Williamson, David, The National Portrait Gallery: History of the Kings and Queens of England, 1998, p. 121
Events of 1661back to top
Current affairsThe Cavalier Parliament, with pro-royalist-Anglican majority, begins passing legislation to enforce conformity to the restored Church of England. These statues became known as the 'Clarendon Code', named after, Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, erroneously, since Clarendon favoured a more tolerate approach.
Coronation of Charles II in Westminster Abbey.
Art and sciencePrince Rupert, Count Palatine, the earliest practitioner of mezzotint engraving in England, demonstrates the technique to diarist John Evelyn.
The Sceptical Chymist by natural philosopher, Robert Boyle is published; in it Boyle argues for a more philosophical approach to the study of nature by 'chymists'.
InternationalThe marriage treaty of Charles II and Catherine of Braganza, sister of the Afonso VI, King of Portugal is concluded. Catherine's dowry brings Mumbai and Tangiers into British possession, as well as free trade with Brazil and the East Indies. England, in return, would provide military protection for Portugal.
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Links to audio and transcripts of interviews with artists, sitters and historic recordings.
- Restoration Lives: Samuel Pepys and His Circle
- Kings and Queens: A Family tree
- Alexander Browne and Richard Tompson
- Barbara Villiers
- Handlist of names in the Reference Collection
- Handlist of names in the Reference Collection - M-Z
- Duchess of Cleveland Appeal
- Painted Ladies: Women at the Court of Charles II
- Catherine Sedley
- 2018 Anniversaries
- Family Album
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