Sir Isaac Newton
- Extended Catalogue Entry
Sir Isaac Newton
by Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt
oil on canvas, feigned oval, 1702
29 3/4 in. x 24 1/2 in. (756 mm x 622 mm)
Purchased with help from the Art Fund, 1936
Sitterback to top
- Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), Mathematical scientist. Sitter associated with 46 portraits.
Artistback to top
- Sir Godfrey Kneller, Bt (1646-1723), Portrait painter. Artist associated with 1686 portraits, Sitter associated with 30 portraits.
Related worksback to top
- NPG D11505: Sir Isaac Newton (source portrait)
- NPG D19601: Sir Isaac Newton (source portrait)
- NPG D19803: Sir Isaac Newton (after)
- NPG D13924: Sir Isaac Newton (source portrait)
- NPG D30979: Sir Isaac Newton (source portrait)
- NPG D38741: Sir Isaac Newton (source portrait)
- NPG D38742: Sir Isaac Newton (source portrait)
- NPG D42883: Sir Isaac Newton (after)
Linked publicationsback to top
- 100 Portraits, p. 38
- Audio Guide
- Smartify image discovery app
- Cooper, John, A Guide to the National Portrait Gallery, 2009, p. 24 Read entry
An intense and vivid portrait of the great scholar. A successful and self-promoting academic politician, Newton used portraiture to confirm and celebrate his status.
- Cooper, John, Great Britons: The Great Debate, 2002, p. 81
- Hart-Davis, Adam, Chain Reactions, 2000, p. 29
- Ingamells, John, Later Stuart Portraits 1685-1714, 2009, p. 189
- Ollard, Richard, Pepys and his Contemporaries, 2015, p. 95
- Parris, Matthew, Heroes and Villains: Scarfe at the National Portrait Gallery, 2003 (accompanying the exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery from 30 September 2003 to 4 April 2004), p. 99
- Piper, David, The English Face, 1992, p. 110
- Saywell, David; Simon, Jacob, Complete Illustrated Catalogue, 2004, p. 458
- Strong, Roy, Tudor and Jacobean Portraits, 1969, p. 284
- Various contributors, National Portrait Gallery: A Portrait of Britain, 2014, p. 95 Read entry
One of the greatest of all scientists and thinkers, Isaac Newton was the most important influence on theoretical physics and astronomy before Albert Einstein. His wide-ranging achievements include theories concerning light, colour and calculus. His most significant contribution to scientific thought is the theory of universal gravitation, an idea that supposedly first came to him when he saw an apple falling from a tree. His most important theories were published in two seminal works: Mathematica Principia (1687) and Opticks (1704). He was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705 and presided over the Royal Society from 1703 until his death.
This portrait was painted when Newton, aged sixty, and Godfrey Kneller (1646–1723), aged fifty-six, were at the indisputable pinnacle of their respective professions. The picture is conventional in almost every sense – the head-and-shoulders composition, the wig and the arbitrary swathe of drapery. However, Kneller’s vigorous, swift handling gives the picture an exceptional vividness and expressive quality, while the piercing intensity of Newton’s gaze provides a sense of the sitter’s genius.
Linked displays and exhibitionsback to top
- Science, Religion and Politics: The Royal Society (11 September 2010 - 5 December 2010)
Subjects & Themesback to top
Events of 1702back to top
Current affairsWilliam III dies and is succeeded by Anne, his sister-in-law, the second daughter of James II and Anne Hyde. Committed to the Church of England and swayed towards Tory values, the queen would enjoy considerable popularity.
The general election sweeps the Tories to power in a landslide victory.
Art and scienceWriter, Daniel Defoe, publishes the Shortest Way with the Dissenters. The pamphlet is considered critical of the Anglican Church and Defoe is eventually arrested for seditious libel and briefly imprisoned.
The Daily Courant, Britain's first daily newspaper consisting of one page with two columns, is printed by Elizabeth Mallet.
InternationalAdmiral George Rooke overwhelmingly defeats a French squadron escorting a Spanish silver fleet from South America, at the naval Battle of Vigo Bay.
In the War of the Spanish Succession, John Churchill, Captain-General of the Forces, forces the French to withdraw from the River Maas.
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