© Estate Gisèle Freund / IMEC Images
by Gisèle Freund
colour print, 1939
11 3/4 in. x 9 1/2 in. (299 mm x 240 mm)
- James Joyce (1882-1941), Novelist, poet and playwright. Sitter in 7 portraits.
Freund photographed Joyce on three occasions; this session, in his apartment in the Rue Edmund Valentin in Paris, was for a Time magazine cover and was taken in the year in which his most revolutionary novel, Finnegans Wake, was published.
- Place made: France (sitter's home, Rue Edmund Valentin, Paris)
Britain goes to war. The German invasion of Poland demonstrated that the policy of appeasement had failed. After refusing to meet Britain's ultimatum to withdraw troops, Britain and France declared war on Germany. The Second World War had begun.
Art and science
The Sutton Hoo burial ship is discovered. Apparently following a dream, Mrs Pretty invited the archaeologist Basil Brown to investigate a series of burial mounds on her estate on the banks of the river Deben in Suffolk. The excavation revealed an Anglo-Saxon burial, uncovering the most significant horde of early medieval artefacts found in Britain (now housed at the British Museum).
The Second World War begins. Germany's invasion of Poland prompted Britain and France to declare war forming the core of the Allied powers. As part of the Soviet-Nazi Pact, the Soviet Union joined the war on the German side, helping, with Italy, to form the Axis Powers. Poland was soon overpowered and the Baltic Republics and Finland were invaded by the Soviet Union.