Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex
Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex
attributed to Hans Holbein the Younger
watercolour and bodycolour on vellum, circa 1532-1533
1 3/4 in. (44 mm) diameter
Purchased with help from the National Heritage Memorial Fund and the Art Fund, 1994
Sitterback to top
- Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex (circa 1485-1540), Statesman. Sitter associated with 28 portraits.
Artistback to top
- Hans Holbein the Younger (1497 or 1498-1543), Painter, printmaker and designer; son of Hans Holbein the Elder. Artist associated with 315 portraits, Sitter associated with 25 portraits.
This portraitback to top
This portrait of Thomas Cromwell may be one of the first miniatures Holbein painted. It was made during his second visit to England in 1532 when Cromwell was advancing as a trusted councillor of the king. The mount has been cut from a playing card of the suit of spades. This portrait is mounted in the same case as another, later, miniature of Cromwell.
Linked publicationsback to top
- Tudor Portraits Resource Pack, p. 10
- Bolland, Charlotte, Tudor & Jacobean Portraits, 2018, p. 143
- MacLeod, Catharine, Tudor Portraits in the National Portrait Gallery Collection, 1996, p. 10
- Saumarez Smith, Charles, The National Portrait Gallery: An Illustrated Guide, 2000, p. 33
- Saumarez Smith, Charles, The National Portrait Gallery, 1997, p. 33 Read entry
Holbein is known to have painted Thomas Cromwell sometime between April 1532, when Cromwell became Master of the Jewel House, and April 1533, when he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer, since a bill survives addressed 'To our trusty and right well beloved Councillor, Thomas Cromwell, Master of our Jewel House'. But how this miniature relates to the commission is unknown. Indeed, it is not necessarily by Holbein himself, although no contemporary is known to have been master of such a fine and fastidious technique. What is indisputable is that it shows Thomas Cromwell, the great Tudor statesman and chief architect of the Reformation, at an early stage of his career.
- Saywell, David; Simon, Jacob, Complete Illustrated Catalogue, 2004, p. 208
- Walker, Richard, Miniatures: 300 Years of the English Miniature, 1998, p. 18 Read entry
Holbein was taught the art of miniature painting on vellum by Master Lucas, but according to Carel van Mander 'as far excelled Lucas in drawing, arrangement, understanding and execution, as the sun surpasses the moon in brightness'. Thomas Cromwell, as principal secretary to Henry VIII, negotiated the dissolution of the monasteries, the fall of Anne Boleyn and Henry's marriage to Anne of Cleves, which finally led to his own downfall and execution on Tower Hill.
This exquisite miniature of Cromwell, a discriminating collector himself, is one of the jewels of the NPG collection, acquired with generous help from the National Heritage Memorial Fund and the National Art Collections Fund. Widely attributed to Holbein, it could be his earliest-known 'limning'.
Linked displays and exhibitionsback to top
Events of 1532back to top
Current affairsA convocation of English clergy ratifies Thomas Cromwell's Submission of the English Clergy, thereby surrendering all control of the English Church to King Henry VIII. Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor in protest.
Pope Clement VII threatens to excommunicate King Henry VIII.
Anne Boleyn is made Marchioness of Pembroke.
Art and scienceThomas Cromwell's miniature portrait is painted, probably by the German artist Hans Holbein the Younger.
The first collected edition of Geoffrey Chaucer's works is published by William Thynne.
InternationalSuleiman I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire invades Hungary and fails to conquer Vienna for a second time.
The Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro defeats and captures Atahulpa, emperor of the Incas.
- Tudor Miniatures
- Tints, texture and original intent, in four after-Holbein portraits
- Technique and effects of the after-Holbein copyists
- Holbein and his copyists
- The contexts for the production and demand for painted versions and copies in the sixteenth and early seventeenth century
- Director's Trail by Nicholas Cullinan