© National Portrait Gallery, London
Joseph Shield Nicholson
by William Brassey Hole
etching, published 1884
7 7/8 in. x 5 3/8 in. (200 mm x 136 mm) plate size; 11 7/8 in. x 8 7/8 in. (302 mm x 225 mm) paper size
- William Brassey Hole (1846-1917), Painter, etcher and engraver. Artist associated with 39 portraits, Sitter in 1 portrait.
- NPG D9065: Joseph Shield Nicholson (from same plate)
The Third Reform Act further reduces the financial threshold for voters, extending the franchise to all householders in the counties, achieving uniformity with those in the boroughs, and effectively doubling the electorate from 2.5 million to just under 5 million.
Foundation of the socialist group, the Fabian Society. The group quickly grows in size, including members Eleanor Marx, George Bernard Shaw and Beatrice Webb.
Art and science
Under the editorship of James Murray, the Oxford English Dictionary begins publication, with the tenth and final volume appearing 1928. The idea for a historical dictionary of the English language had been conceived by members of the Philological Society in 1857, including Frederick Furnivall, and some 800 voluntary readers contributed to the immense project.
Germany annexes Southwest Africa, Togoland, the Cameroons, and Tanganyike, and launches the scramble for Africa as it becomes the third largest colonial power in the continent. Bismarck also invites the European powers to a West Africa conference in Berlin, which, carving up the map of Africa between them, regulates colonial practice, frees trade and prohibits slavery, formally marking the start of the New Imperialism which would flourish until World War I.