1 of 4 portraits of Edward Calver
by Wenceslaus Hollar, published by Peter Stent
5 3/8 in. x 3 3/4 in. (138 mm x 96 mm) paper size
Given by the daughter of compiler William Fleming MD, Mary Elizabeth Stopford (née Fleming), 1931
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Events of 1644back to top
Current affairsRoyalists under Prince Rupert are defeated by the united forces of Scottish Covenanters and English Parliamentarians at the Battle of Marston Moor, ending their power in the north of England.
Queen Henrietta, having giving birth to her last child, leaves England for safety. She would never see her husband again.
Art and scienceFrench philosopher, René Descartes, publishes Principles of Philosophy, setting out his views on the laws of physics, notably, the principle concerning the motion of objects in the absence of external forces, later borrowed by Sir Isaac Newton.
InternationalThe construction of Fort St. George, the first English fortress in India, is completed by the East India Company. It soon became a centre for trade and led to the expansion of settlements, eventually becoming the coastal city of Madras (Chennai).
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