© National Portrait Gallery, London
after Robert Walker
etching, circa 1651-1658 (circa 1649)
6 7/8 in. x 4 3/4 in. (175 mm x 122 mm) paper size
Given by the daughter of compiler William Fleming MD, Mary Elizabeth Stopford (née Fleming), 1931
- Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658), Lord Protector of England. Sitter associated with 224 portraits.
- Robert Walker (1599-1658), Painter. Artist associated with 142 portraits, Sitter in 3 portraits.
- NPG 536: Oliver Cromwell (source portrait)
- NPG D42993: Oliver Cromwell (from same plate)
Charles II, crowned King of Scotland, daringly invades England. His defeat at the Battle of Worcester by Oliver Cromwell permanently ends further military action against Parliament. Charles's escape from Worcester becomes legendary, as a fugitive, he seeks refuge for six weeks before finally fleeing to Normandy.
Art and science
Social philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, publishes his major work, Leviathan
. Recognised as a cornerstone of western political philosophy, Hobbes's implication that the new political authority should be accepted, angering many exiled royalists.
Headed by Chief Justice, Oliver St. John, a delegation is sent by the Rump Parliament to The Hague to negotiate a union between England and the Dutch Republic. The mission fails, principally over refusal by the Dutch to expel the exiled Stuart royal family from the country.