8 of 11 portraits of James Martineau
by and published by James Stephenson, published by and after Charles Agar
mezzotint, published 1847 (1846)
16 3/8 in. x 12 in. (415 mm x 304 mm) plate size; 22 in. x 17 1/4 in. (560 mm x 439 mm) paper size
Sitterback to top
- James Martineau (1805-1900), Unitarian minister and writer. Sitter in 11 portraits.
Artistsback to top
Placesback to top
- Place made: United Kingdom: England, Greater Manchester (Art Union Repository, 104 King Street, Manchester)
Events of 1847back to top
Current affairsThe 10 Hours Factory Act passed, regulating working hours for women and children under the age of eighteen to a maximum of ten hours a day.
The Communist League is founded in London, and drew up a set of rules and aims, including overthrowing the bourgeoisie and empowering the Proleteriat, and ending class division, forming the basis of Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto (1848).}
Death and emigration resulting from starvation, plague and disease during worst year of the Great Famine in Ireland, known as Black 47.
Art and scienceA good year for novels: Emily Bronte's passionate, rebellious and gothic Wuthering Heightsis published, followed shortly by her sister Charlotte's 'Jane Eyre, a story of a governess's struggle for liberty from social and gender constrictions. Drawing on a similar vein of revolution and rebellious women, William Thackeray's satirical novel Vanity Fair is serialised.
The Don Pacifico affair sparks an international incident, when the Jewish trader's business was burned in an anti-semitic attack in Athens. When the Greek government refused to compensate him, Gibraltar-born Pacifico appealed to the British government. Foreign Minister Palmerston sent a squadron into the Aegean in 1850 to seize goods of the equivalent value, leading to strained relations with Turkey and Russia, and heated debates in Parliament.
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