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Sir John de Hawkwood

© National Portrait Gallery, London

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Sir John de Hawkwood

by T. Stimmer, after Paolo Uccello
woodcut, published 1582 (1436)
Reference Collection
NPG D3237

Sitterback to top

Artistsback to top

  • T. Stimmer. Artist associated with 1 portrait.
  • Paolo Uccello (1397-1475), Painter. Artist associated with 4 portraits.

Events of 1582back to top

Current affairs

Raid of Ruthven - King James VI of Scotland is kidnapped by a group of Presbyterian nobles, led by William Ruthven, Earl of Gowrie. The plotters rule Scotland for ten months with the approval of Queen Elizabeth I and the Scottish Kirk.

Art and science

The courtier, poet and soldier Sir Philip Sidney writes Astrophil and Stella, a collection of love sonnets and songs, and A Defence of Poetry, one of the first pieces of literary criticism in English.
Death of the scholar George Buchanan and posthumous publication of his history of Scotland, Rerum Scoticarum historia (Histories of Scottish Matters).
The poet and dramatist William Shakespeare marries Anne Hathaway.


The Gregorian Calendar (named after Pope Gregory XIII), which advances the date by ten day, is adopted throughout Catholic Europe. Protestant countries continue to use the old dating system, the Julian Calendar, until the eighteenth century.
The Peace of Jam-Zapolski concludes the Livonian War between Russia and Poland. Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland and loses access to the Baltic Sea.

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