Cornelius de Wael; Lucas de Wael
by Wenceslaus Hollar, after Sir Anthony van Dyck
line engraving, 1646
Given by the daughter of compiler William Fleming MD, Mary Elizabeth Stopford (née Fleming), 1931
- Wenceslaus Hollar (1607-1677), Etcher. Artist associated with 534 portraits, Sitter associated with 10 portraits.
- Sir Anthony van Dyck (1599-1641), Painter. Artist associated with 1023 portraits, Sitter associated with 30 portraits.
First civil war ends. Under Thomas Fairfax, Commander-in-Chief, Parliamentarians defeat Royalist armies in the last major conflicts of the war, the Battles of Torrington and Stow-on-the-Wold. The subsequent fall of Royalist Oxford forces Charles I to flee and he surrenders himself to the Scots at Newark.
Art and science
Portrait painter, William Dobson, returns to London after the defeat of the king and is briefly imprisoned for debt. He dies in poverty aged thirty-five.
Instructed by Charles I, James Butler, Marquess of Ormonde resumes negotiations with the Irish Confederates attempting to raise troops for the royalist cause. The resulting First Ormonde Peace, though publicly proclaimed, is eventually rejected by the Confederates on account of papal ambassador, Archbishop Rinuccini's considerable influence.