by Wenceslaus Hollar, after Sir Anthony van Dyck etching, 1646 10 1/2 in. x 7 3/4 in. (267 mm x 196 mm) paper size Purchased with help from the Friends of the National Libraries and the Pilgrim Trust, 1966 Reference Collection NPG D18356
First civil war ends. Under Thomas Fairfax, Commander-in-Chief, Parliamentarians defeat Royalist armies in the last major conflicts of the war, the Battles of Torrington and Stow-on-the-Wold. The subsequent fall of Royalist Oxford forces Charles I to flee and he surrenders himself to the Scots at Newark.
Art and science
Portrait painter, William Dobson, returns to London after the defeat of the king and is briefly imprisoned for debt. He dies in poverty aged thirty-five.
Instructed by Charles I, James Butler, Marquess of Ormonde resumes negotiations with the Irish Confederates attempting to raise troops for the royalist cause. The resulting First Ormonde Peace, though publicly proclaimed, is eventually rejected by the Confederates on account of papal ambassador, Archbishop Rinuccini's considerable influence.