6 of 8 portraits of Benjamin Franklin
by Justus Chevillet, after Joseph Siffred Duplessis
line engraving, 1778
12 1/8 in. x 8 1/8 in. (308 mm x 205 mm) plate size; 13 5/8 in. x 9 1/4 in. (345 mm x 235 mm) paper size
Given by Sir Herbert Henry Raphael, 1st Bt, 1916
Sitterback to top
- Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790), American statesman; signer of the Declaration of Independence. Sitter in 8 portraits.
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Events of 1778back to top
Current affairsCatholic Relief Act is the first to provide a measure of catholic emancipation, modifying the penal laws that effectively prevented Catholics from holding public office. The reform is encouraged by the Lord Chief Justice, Lord Mansfield, who had balked at various prosecutions under the statutes now repealed.
Art and scienceFrancis D'Arblay, writing as Fanny Burney, publishes her novel Evelina, or the History of a Young Lady's Entrance into the World, in which she satirises contemporary society.
Engineer Joseph Bramah invents a type of flush toilet, replacing the usual slide valve with a hinged flap that seals the bottom of the bowl.
InternationalAmerican War of Independence: France, joining the American colonies in their fight against Britain, sends a large fleet across the Atlantic. The British rapidly abandon Philadelphia. The American naval hero John Paul Jones makes successful raids around the coasts of Britain.
James Cook's third Pacific voyage, aboard the ships HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery, first views Oahu then Kauai in the Hawaiian Islands, which Cook names the Sandwich Islands.