The House of Commons, 1833
1 of 9 portraits of Sir (Jonathan) Frederick Pollock, 1st Bt
- Extended catalogue entry
Early Victorian Portraits Catalogue
The House of Commons, 1833
by Sir George Hayter
136 1/4 in. x 213 3/8 in. (3460 mm x 5420 mm) overall
Inscriptionback to top
Signed and dated (lower right, on the folder beside the artist): George Hayter Eques/pingebat/1833. 1843.
This portraitback to top
Hayter's picture represents the moving of the address to the Crown on 5 February 1833, at the opening of the first Reformed Parliament in the House of Commons (St Stephen's Chapel, destroyed by fire, 1834). The figure actually speaking on the left is the 2nd Marquess of Breadalbane. The picture includes nearly four hundred identifiable figures, mainly MPs, but with a smattering of important whig and tory peers, and a few outsiders.
Unlike his earlier group portrait of the 'House of Lords, 1820' (NPG 999, depicting the trial of Queen Caroline), Hayter did not receive an official commission to paint the House of Commons in 1833. He was, however, an ardent supporter of the reform movement, and many of his most devoted patrons were prominent whig aristocrats and politicians. In his preface to the 1843 Catalogue, Hayter acknowledged the help and kindness of, among others, the Duke of Bedford, Earl Spencer, Lord John Russell, the Duke of Wellington, the Earl of Aberdeen, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Lyndhurst, Sir Robert Inglis, Joseph Hume, and Charles Hamilton, 'who exerted his utmost influence to induce him to commence so arduous a task'. In a letter to Gladstone of 8 March 1854 (British Museum, Add MS, 44378, f 85), Hayter wrote:
'Early in the year 1833, I was induced by my Friends to undertake the arduous task of painting the above subject. I was assisted, and encouraged, by the most distinguished personages in both Houses, first in obtaining the necessary sittings from every person represented, and by my being at all times admitted to the House, to study the habits and manners of the members, previously to their coming to my studio to sit, I was enabled to perform a work of truth, and secondly by a firm belief on the part of those who sat, that it would certainly be purchased by the nation. - But, Sir, such an undertaking, produced with the care which I bestowed on every part of it, could not be performed in a short time: and unfortunately for me, as concerned my probable pecuniary reward, the great party of Reformers were no longer in the majority in 1843 when my picture was finished. I could not cherish a hope that the government of that day would willingly purchase the representation, which I had laboured to make as truthful as possible, placing O'Connell, Cobbett, Gully, &c. &c. &c. in the midst of the high conservative members. - Sir Robert Peel, however, with the love of art, and enlightened feelings he professed, did not shrink from sitting, even when engaged by Mr Croker, not to do so; but assisted me by inducing others to follow his example, amongst whom the present Chancellor of the Exchequer will be found, without which my picture must have been a one sided failure. I may however state, that having relinquished the lucrative profession of general portrait painting, to achieve an unique production, as to the number of portraits contained in one picture, I was left without the anticipated reward. - Still, Sir I was to be consoled, by having persons of all ranks, who saw it, declare that it was a wonderful production, which must eventually become national property. - I have been induced to wait patiently.'
The history of Hayter's picture can be divided into two parts: the first, covering the actual painting of the group, and the second, the artist's laborious efforts to sell it. When he first undertook the work in 1833, Hayter evidently hoped that it would not only be a profitable undertaking but one which would increase his reputation and fame. Like many artists before him, he saw that interest in a documentary record of a contemporary event was bound to be very considerable. Such a painting, combining history painting, portraiture and contemporary reportage, would have an immediate appeal, as works of pure art frequently did not. In his introduction to the 1843 exhibition catalogue, Hayter wrote of the excitement aroused by the Reform Bill, and of the significance of the meeting of the first Reformed House of Commons:
'The event was one to be perpetuated, and it may be assumed that painting can represent the scene to posterity better than poetry or prose: by these the mind may be made acquainted with the results attendant on the meeting; but the public, it is hoped, will appreciate the labour of an artist to transmit to posterity, by truth of delineation, that evidence of the actual occurrence, and of its details, which must belong to the features, dress, or habits of our present day, and which do not come within the province of an author.'
Hayter went on to state that no previous painter had ever painted a picture containing nearly 400 portraits, in which every person had sat to the artist. He wrote also of the difficulties he had encountered:
'The etiquette and the architectural monotony of form in the House imposed limits not to be transgressed in the composition, if the true scene were to be represented. Expression is little to be looked for on such occasions, and, therefore, there are but few attempts made to represent strong feeling ...The light governing the Picture, as it does, from the further end and two sides of the House, rendered it necessary to treat the whole in a manner unusual in great compositions, where the masses of light are arranged at the discretion of the painter. The colour of European costume cannot be considered favourable to an artist; the colours worn are nearly the same, and, from the material of which they are composed, are less calculated to reflect light than silks and satins. These were some of the unyielding materials for such a work.'
Many of Hayter's studies of individual heads survive (they are listed with the names of the sitters below), but relatively few general compositional studies, or figure studies. Those recorded are as follows: a small oil sketch for the whole composition (14 x 22 inches (35.5 x 55.8 cm)), now in the Houses of Parliament, possibly that in the Hayter Sale, Christie's, 21 April 1871 (lot 615), listed by R. J. B. Walker, 'Catalogue of Paintings, Drawings, Sculpture and Engravings in the Palace of Westminster' (Ministry of Public Building and Works, 1962), IV, 120; a perspective drawing (NPG 3073); several pencil studies in the Hayter Sale (lot 350). It is clear that Hayter made numerous visits to the House of Commons, and he must have produced a large number of sketches, as he did in the case of the 'House of Lords, 1820' (NPG 999), but few appear to have survived.
The large painting evidently took Hayter considerably longer than he had originally envisaged. He must have realized the dangers of delay. Most of his studies of individual heads which survive date from 1833-5, which suggests that he hoped to finished the big picture itself within a reasonable space of time. A report in The Times, clearly prompted by, and possibly dictated by, the artist, confirms this (29 June 1837):
'Mr Hayter's picture of the moving the address to his late Majesty William IV, in the House of Commons, in the year 1833, is in rapid progress towards its completion. There is every prospect that by the commencement of next year it will be finished ... As an historical picture this work has the highest claims to encomium. The story is well told, and the characteristics of many of the members are depicted with a fidelity which at once illustrates the subject ... It is desirable that those gentlemen who have promised the artist to sit, in order that he may lose no time in finishing his arduous task, will not delay to redeem their promises, and it is to be hoped that Mr Hayter will receive the reward he so justly deserves for his perseverance, intense labour, and great professional merit, in bringing this gigantic work to perfection.'
In the same year, Queen Victoria visited Hayter's studio, and recorded what she saw in her diary (Royal Archives, Windsor, 8 May 1837):
'We went to Mr George Hayter's and saw all his fine pictures. His large picture of the Reform House of Commons, full of portraits is splendid, it is an immense work and will only be finished next year. The studies of the different members for which they sat, and which are then copied into the larger picture, are beautiful, so highly finished and so like. Hayter is out and out the best portrait-painter in my opinion.'
Queen Victoria's comment has some bearing on Hayter's delay in finishing the 'House of Commons' group. She appointed him 'portrait and history painter to the Queen' on her accession, and commissioned several individual and group portraits in the years immediately following, which kept him busy.
The NPG picture was not finally finished until 1843. A drawing showing Hayter at work on the picture, dated 1843, is in the NPG (1103), and another by Landseer was in the Hayter Sale (lot 374). The picture was exhibited at the Egyptian Gallery in Piccadilly, together with other large works by Hayter, from April to August 1843, and was moderately well received. The Times reviewer wrote (4 April 1843):
'The greatest praise that can be bestowed upon this picture is to say that it professes to represent with fidelity a great historical event, and that it fulfills every proposition which it makes.'
Similar comments were voiced in the Art-Union and the Athenaeum, the reviewer of the latter journal writing at some length (no.806, April 1843, 340-1):
'The management of the light seems, to us, excellent; and this, too, it will be recollected, is arbitrary: then the mathematical angularity of a composition in which four rows of heads necessarily form a prominent object, is happily varied. Sir E. Codrington's hand on the pillar, the eager attitude of O'Connell ... Lord John Russell leaning forward ... are all accidents at once conducive to truthful and to pictorial effect ... The likenesses are, for the most part, good. It is true that Sir George Hayter sees his sitters through some medium which sharpens their features, a certain pinched thinness of face being as characteristic of his portraits, as a squareness of contour is of those by Leslie; but it would be hard to name the artist who would have been, on the whole, more faithful, or so spirited: - while the industry with which the work has been wrought up and finished, is creditable to its painter.'
The most hostile criticism of the picture came from the bitterly jealous Haydon, whose own group portrait of the 'Anti-Slavery Society Convention, 1840' (NPG 599), had received relatively little publicity (Diary of Benjamin Robert Haydon, V (1963), 259-60, for 5 April 1843):
'Went to see Hayter's Picture. The Time is fast coming when we shall get sick of these bastard 'High Art Works'. Brougham came in with me, & as he looked at the Picture he said, 'The most striking thing in it is Burdett's breeches. It is outrageously ridiculous to make the door Keeper of the House the most prominent head in it.' This was spitish but true ... Hayter has acted like a sensible Man who Knows the world. He has made every body pay 10.10 & gave them their sketch. I sketched every body & made them pay nothing ... Hayter has received 4000.'
The last part of Haydon's statement is evidently untrue. Although Hayter may have sold some of the sketches at the time, a large number appeared in his sale, and, unlike the 'Anti-Slavery Society Convention', the big picture itself was not commissioned. Nor was Hayter able to find a publisher for an engraving of the picture, as he must have hoped to do; such engravings were often extremely profitable.
The problem of disposing of the 'House of Commons' group was to occupy Hayter for thirteen years. Interest in the Reform Bill had lapsed, and the sheer size of the picture precluded its purchase by private individuals. Hayter had really missed his market, and his influential friends, who might have helped him in the years immediately following the passage of the Reform Bill, were unwilling to do so eleven years later. In a typical letter of solicitation and self-pity, Hayter wrote to Peel on 1 December 1845 (British Museum, Add MS, 40580, f 129):
'Pray let me hope you will pardon my intruding this letter on your attention, as it is only by your decision that any success can result from the application which I desire to make to the Trustees of the National Gallery ... The picture, which occupied me the greatest portion of ten years, is essentially a national document: and I trust that it will not be improper to say that the kind opinion which you did me the honor to express, when you favored me by sitting for it, ever remained on my mind as one of the greatest rewards for my labour and led me to hope that at a future period you might not oppose it becoming the property of the National Gallery ... I take the liberty of enclosing the accompanying catalogue, the perusal of which may recall the picture and aid me in pleading for that kind interest from you, Sir, which is indispensable to the attainment of this high object of my ambition.'
There are several earlier letters from Hayter to Peel on the subject of his picture, including one of 8 July 1844 asking for a new sitting, as the artist was dissatisfied with the existing likeness (British Museum Add MS, 40548, f 136; see also 40526, f 438).
In 1848, Hayter exhibited the picture at the British Institution. He had written to the Duke of Sutherland on 22 October 1847 (Sutherland Papers, Staffordshire County Record Office, 10699. D593/P/22/1/17(dd)):
'I had the honor to receive Your Grace's most kind reply to my application for your powerful aid to assist me in obtaining permission to exhibit my great picture of the First reformed parliament at the British Gallery for sale, next year ... I humbly beg Your Grace to do me the honor to accept my most sincere thanks.'
In spite of his renewed efforts, Hayter was still unable to find a buyer, and he received some hostile criticism from the Art-Union (1848, p 81):
'It is understood that none but unexhibited pictures are admitted, but we nevertheless find, occupying an entire end of the rooms, a large and well known, because well exhibited, picture by Sir George Hayter. This, to say the least, is an unaccountable infraction of the rules of the Institution.'
Hayter's final hopes of selling the picture centred on the Government. He wrote letters to Lord John Russell, to Gladstone, and probably to other prominent statesmen, attempting to enlist their support. A letter of 6 March 1850 to Lord John Russell is a characteristic example (British Museum, Add MS, 38080, f 92):
'From what has been said to me by those members, whom I have seen, I think I may venture to report favorable progress, concerning my great picture. Lord Ellesmere, Mr Edd. Ellice, Mr Sydney Herbert, Adml. R. Gordon, Mr Labouchere, Mr Macaulay, Mr Greene, and others, all treat the subject as certain in its result: and most kindly offer me every assistance, but it becomes evident, that although Mr Hume[?] will willingly bring the subject before the House, if your Lordship thinks proper; still the government only has the power to propose the purchase. It certainly exhibits a singular case, for your Lordship knows that his Grace the Duke of Bedford, would have bought it, if there had been any possibility of placing it in Woburn Abbey ... Another person, as I stated last year, would have given me 5000, gs. for it, if the law would have permitted him to dispose of it by raffle ... These are almost sufficient proofs that the picture is appreciated as valuable, and, as historical, highly interesting!'
The portrait was put on exhibition for a time in the tea-room of the Houses of Parliament, but there was little enthusiasm for it. On 19 January 5854, Hayter wrote to Russell again (British Museum, Add MS, 38080, f 98):
'I have improved the effect of it very much, by taking away the real curtains and draperies, in which it has hitherto been seen; and have finished the picture, according to my first intention by painting the curtains; and putting it into a proper gilt frame. Upon the subject of sending it to public auction, with a reserve price, - I am lead to believe that, should it not be sold, at that time; that after my death it would stand a much worse chance of being well sold, from having been so placed unsuccessfully.
Perhaps your Lordship, could name one, or two members of parliament, who would take the necessary interest in it, and who would, if they once took it in hand, easily awaken the subject in the minds of others, so as to effect its purchase ... Perhaps it would answer to invite all the Lords, and Commons, for a certain number of days, to come here to see it, placing an open book to be signed, by all those who consider that it ought to be purchased?'
Hayter's subsequent letter to Gladstone on the same subject has already been quoted.
In 1858, Hayter's efforts were finally rewarded. The Tory Government agreed to buy the picture on the recommendation of a special committee composed of Lord John Russell, Lord Elcho and Mr Cunningham. The Times wrote (11 August 1858):
'This picture undoubtedly affords one of the greatest and most important collective series of portraits in existence, and it is to be hoped will soon be deposited in some place where the public will have the opportunity of referring to it.'
Later the same year the picture was presented to the NPG by the Government, Disraeli's secretary, Ralph Earle, writing to Earl Stanhope, chairman of the NPG trustees (copy of a letter, 24 July 1858, NPG archives):
'The Chancellor of the Exchequer being prevented by pressing occupations, from writing to your Lordship, with his own hand has desired me to state, for the information of the Trustees of the National Portrait Gallery, that had he been able to assist at the meeting today, he would then have announced his intention of offering to add the picture, which has just been purchased by the Government, from Sir George Hayter, to the National Portrait Gallery.'
Palmerston wrote to Queen Victoria on 3 August 1859 (Royal Archives, RA. A27/98), referring to the discussions of estimates in the House of Commons:
'The next was on the vote of Two Thousand Pounds engaged by the late Government to be paid to Sir George Hayter for his Picture of the first reformed House of Commons, an indifferent work of art, and a Collection of bad Likenesses but the money had been actually paid by the late Government, and the vote was required to Sanction the Payment which ought not to have been made until after the vote had been obtained - on Division the numbers were equal, 82 for the vote and 82 against it. - The casting vote was with the Chairman Mr Massey and he gave his vote in accordance with the general Rule, that in such cases the Speaker or Chairman should vote in such a manner as to give the House a further opportunity of Considering the matter. Mr Massey therefore voted with the ayes, for the Grant, because in that way he afforded the House another opportunity of considering the matter on the Report of the Resolution, whereas if he had voted with the noes, there would have been at once an end of the Proposal ... It is remarkable that while the present Government were supporting votes prepared by their Predecessors Two of which namely that to Sir George Hayter and that to Mr Barber they would not themselves have originated, most of the Supporters of the late Government present in the House voted against these proposed Grants.'
For a further discussion of the matter in the House of Commons, see Art Journal (1859), p 289.
In 1867 Hayter, who had heard that his picture was not in good condition, wrote a letter of complaint to the NPG (29 April 1867, NPG archives):
'It is now reported as suffering seriously from damp, and the colouring changed and fading. - The total ruin of this, my greatest labour, will thus be totally ruined, and my future reputation thereby deteriorated! May I request you to do me the kindness, to take such measures as you know to be efficient, for correcting this unforseen event.'
Hayter's information proved to be incorrect, and the condition of the picture, then and now, remains sound.
The following alphabetical list, largely the work of Mrs Kay, and based on that in Hayter's 1843 catalogue, includes every known sitter in the picture. An asterisk beside the name of the sitter denotes that other portraits of him are included in this catalogue. The constituency, and the number in brackets referring to the key, are given after each name. Studies are listed with the date, if recorded, and the present location, if known; almost all are on millboard, approximately 14 x 12 inches (35.5 x 30.5 cm). The majority were in the Hayter Sale, Christie's, 19-21 April 1871. The following people are represented in the picture:
*Aberdeen, George Hamilton Gordon, 4th Earl of (1784-1860). (316).
Abingdon, Montagu Bertie, 6th Earl of (Lord Norreys) (1808-84). Oxfordshire (236).
Adam, Admiral Sir Charles (1780-1853). Clackmannan (361).
Adams, Edward Hamlyn (1777-1842). Carmarthenshire (362).
Aglionby, Henry Aglionby (1790-1854). Cockermouth (285).
Agnew, Sir Andrew, Bart (1793-1849). Wigtownshire (287).
Ailesbury, Ernest Augustus Charles Brudenell-Bruce, 3rd Marquess of (Lord Ernest Bruce) (1811-86). Marlborough (209). Study, 1834, collection of Lady Berwick, Attingham.
Althorp, Viscount. See Spencer.
Anglesey, Henry William Paget, 2nd Earl of Uxbridge, and 1st Marquess of (1768-1854). (2). Lord lieutenant of Ireland.
Anson, Sir George (1769-1849). Lichfield (70).
Anson, George (1797-1857). Great Yarmouth (75). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 538).
Apsley, Viscount. See Bathurst.
Arbuthnot, Hugh (1780-1868). Kincardine (331). Copy by pupil of study (with Hay and Gordon), Hayter Sale (lot 564).
Ashburton, Alexander Baring, 1st Baron (1774-1848). Essex North (253). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 507).
Ashburton, William Bingham Baring, and Baron (1799-1864). Winchester (202). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 529).
Ashley, Lord. See Shaftesbury.
Ashley-Cooper, Anthony Henry (1807-58). Dorchester (173). Study, Christie's, 30 March 1972 (lot 93); presumably Hayter Sale (lot 470).
Astley, Sir Jacob. See Hastings.
Attwood, Thomas (1783-1856). Birmingham (296). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 463).
Aveland, Gilbert John Heathcote, 1st Baron (1795-1867). Lincolnshire (330).
Bankes, William John (c.1784-1855). Dorset (190). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 535).
Bannerman, Sir Alexander (1788-1864). Aberdeen (82). Copies by pupils of studies, Hayter Sale (lots 546 and 558).
Baring, Alexander. See Ashburton.
Baring, Francis Thornhill. See Northbrook.
Baring, Henry Bingham (1804-69). Marlborough (204). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 527).
Baring, William Bingham. See Ashburton.
Barnett, Charles James (c.1797-1882). Maidstone (30). Copy by pupil of study, Hayter Sale (lot 558).
Barron, Sir Henry Winston, Bart (1795-1872). Waterford (28). Study, 1835, Sabin Galleries, 1970.
Bateson, Sir Robert, Bart (1782-1863). County Londonderry (260).
Bathurst, George Henry Bathurst, 4th Earl (Viscount Apsley) (1790-1866). Cirencester (178). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 529).
Beauchamp, Henry Beauchamp Lygon, 4th Earl (1784-1863). Worcestershire West (292). Study, collection of Earl Beauchamp, 1909.
Bedford, Francis Russell, 7th Duke of (Marquess of Tavistock) (1788-1861). (4).
Bedford, John Russell, 6th Duke of (1766-1839). (7).
Bedford, William Russell, 8th Duke of (Lord Russell) (1809-72). Tavistock (60). Study, collection of Duke of Bedford (previously called Lord John Russell). Copy by pupil, Hayter Sale (lot 549).
Belfast, Earl of. See Donegall.
Benett, John (1773-1852). Wiltshire, South (73).
Beresford, Sir John Poo, Bart (1766-1844). Coleraine (308). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 493).
Berkeley, George Charles Grantley FitzHardinge (1800-81). Gloucestershire, West (13).
Bernal, Ralph (d. 1854). Rochester (120). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 482).
Bessborough, John William Ponsonby, 4th Earl of (Viscount Duncannon) (1781-1847). Nottingham (555).
Bethell, Richard (1772-1864). Yorkshire, East Riding (286).
Bish, Thomas (1780-1843). Leominster (272).
Blackstone, William Seymour (1809-81). Wallingford (211). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 497).
Blandford, Marquess of. See Marlborough.
*Breadalbane, John Campbell, and Marquess of (Earl of Ormelie) (1796-1862). Perthshire (136). Study, 1834, NPG 2510.
Bristol, Frederick William Hervey, 2nd Marquess of (Earl Jermyn) (1800-64). Bury St Edmunds (170). Study, 1837, National Trust, Ickworth.
Brodie, William Bird (1780-1863). Salisbury (110).
Brotherton, Joseph (1783-1857). Salford (295). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 498).
Brougham and Vaux, William Brougham, 2nd Baron (1795-1886). Southwark (523). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 539).
Brougham de Gyfford, John Cam Hobhouse, 1st Baron (1786-1869). Westminster (150). Copy by pupil of study, Hayter Sale (lot 545).
Browne, Dominick. See Oranmore and Browne.
Bruce, Lord Ernest. See Ailesbury.
Brudenell, Lord. See Cardigan.
Buckingham and Chandos, Richard Plantagenet Temple Nugent Brydges Chandos Grenville, and Duke of (Marquess of Chandos) (1797-1861). Buckinghamshire (168).
Burdett, Sir Francis, Bart (1770-1844). Westminster (99).
*Buxton, Sir Thomas Fowell, Bart (1786-1845). Weymouth (88). Study engraved by J. Brain, published J. Saunders, 1840 (example in NPG), for 'Political Reformers'.
Byng, George (1764-1847). Middlesex (86). Study engraved by W. Holl, published J. Saunders, 1840 (example in NPG), for 'Political Reformers'.
Byng, George Stevens. See Strafford.
Byng, Sir John. See Strafford.
Calcraft, John Hales (1796-1880). Wareham (206).
*Campbell, John Campbell, 1st Baron (1779-1861). Dudley (95). Solicitor-general. Study, Hayter Sale (lot 468); copy by pupil (lot 554).
Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, 1st Viscount (1780-1845). Cambridge University (156). Speaker of the House. Study, collection of Lord Hastings.
Cardigan, James Thomas Brudenell, 7th Earl of (Lord Brudenell) (1797-1868). Northamptonshire, North (262). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 473); copy by pupil (lot 553).
Carlisle, George William Frederick Howard, 7th Earl of (Viscount Morpeth) (1802-64). Yorkshire, West Riding (66). Study, 1835, offered to NPG, 1899, but declined. A similar but differently posed portrait, formerly in the sitter's collection, was engraved by H. Cook, published J. Dowding, 1840 (example in NPG), for 'Political Reformers'.
Carrington, Robert John Smith (later Carrington), and Baron (1796-1868). Chipping Wycombe (118).
Cartwright, William Ralph (1771-1847). Northamptonshire, South (301). Study, collection of Miss Elizabeth Cartwright. Castlereagh, Viscount. See Londonderry.
Cavendish, Lord. See Devonshire.
Cavendish, Charles Compton. See Chesham.
Cayley, Edward Stillingfleet (1802-62). Yorkshire, North Riding (319).
*Cayley, Sir George, Bart (1773-1857). Scarborough (320).
Chandos, Marquess of. See Buckingham and Chandos.
Charleville, Charles William Bury, 2nd Earl of (Lord Tullamore) (1801-51). Penryn (309).
Chesham, Charles Compton Cavendish, 1st Baron (1793-1863). Sussex, East (108).
Chetwynd, William Fawkener (1788-1873). Stafford (74). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 499).
Childers, John Walbanke (1789-1886). Cambridgeshire (27). Copy by pupil of study, Hayter Sale (lot 545).
Clare, Richard Hobart FitzGibbon, 3rd Earl of (1793-1864). County Limerick (297). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 531).
Clay, Sir William, Bart (1791-1869). Tower Hamlets (245).
Clayton, Colonel Sir William Robert, Bart (1786-1866). Great Marlow (69). Copy by pupil of study, Hayter Sale (lot 554).
Cleveland, Henry Vane, 2nd Duke of (Earl of Darlington) (1788-1864). Salop, South (266). Study, 1834, collection of Lord Barnard, Raby Castle.
Clive, Viscount. See Powis.
Clive, Edward Bolton (after 1763-1845). Hereford. Study, collection of Lady Mary Clive.
Clive, Robert Henry (1789-1854). Salop, South (182).
Cobbett, William (1762-1835). Oldham (256).
Cockerell, Sir Charles, Bart (1755-1837). Evesham (356).
*Codrington, Sir Edward (1770-1851). Devonport (23). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 464), presumably that engraved by B. Holl, published Dowding (example in NPG), for 'Political Reformers'.
Cole, Viscount. See Enniskillen.
Cole, Arthur Henry (1780-1844). Enniskillen (210). Study, formerly collection of Captain Berkeley Williams. Copies, Hayter Sale (lots 560 and 61).
Conolly, Edmund Michael (1786-1848). County Donegal (224). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 475).
Coote, Sir Charles Henry, Bart (1802-64). Queen's County (360). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 471).
Corry, Henry Thomas Lowry (1803-73). County Tyrone (254). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 518).
Cottenham, Charles Christopher Pepys, 1st Earl of (1781-1851). Malton (22). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 542).
*Cottesloe, Thomas Francis Fremantle, 1st Baron (1798-1890). Buckingham (203). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 54.2).
Cripps, Joseph (1765-1847). Cirencester (185).
Cumming-Bruce, Charles Lennox (1790-1875). Inverness (322).
Dalrymple, Sir John Hamilton Macgill, Bart. See Stair.
Darlington, Earl of. See Cleveland.
Dashwood, Sir George Henry, Bart (1790-1862). Buckinghamshire (51).
De Mauley, William Francis Spencer Ponsonby, 1st Baron (1787-1855). Dorset (33).
Denison, John Evelyn. See Ossington.
*Derby, Edward George Geoffrey Smith Stanley, 14th Earl of (1799-1869). Lancashire, North (147).
Devonshire, William Cavendish, 7th Duke of (1808-91). Derbyshire, North (32).
D'Eyncourt, Charles Tennyson (1784-1861). Lambeth (76). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 536).
Dick, Quintin (1777-1858). Maldon (238).
Dillwyn, Lewis Weston (1778-1855). Glamorgan (127). Copy by pupil of study, Hayter Sale (lot 548).
Dinevor, George Rice Rice-Trevor, 4th Baron (1795-1869). Carmarthenshire (208). Study, 1835, National Museum of Wales, Cardiff.
Divett, Edward (1797-1864). Exeter (46).
Donegall, George Hamilton Chichester, 3rd Marquess of (Earl of Belfast) (1797-1883). County Antrim (529).
Donkin, Sir Rufane Shaw (1773-1841). Berwick-upon-Tweed (58).
Dugdale, William Stratford (1800-71). Warwickshire, North (298). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 501). Copy by pupil (lot 557). Duncannon, Viscount. See Bessborough.
Duncombe, William. See Feversham.
Dundas, Sir James Whitley Deans (1785-1862). Greenwich (36).
Dundas, Sir Robert Lawrence (1780-1844). Richmond, Yorkshire (121).
Dunfermline, James Abercromby, 1st Baron (1776-1858). Edinburgh (83). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 495).
Dykes, Fretchville Lawson Ballantine (1800-66). Cockermouth (44).
Eastnor, Viscount. See Somers.
Ebrington, Viscount. See Fortescue.
Ebury, Robert Grosvenor, 1st Baron (1801-93). Chester (141).
Ellice, Edward (1781-1863). Coventry (92).
*Elliot, Sir George (1784-1863). Roxburghshire (137). Study, 1834, NPG 2511. Presumably Hayter Sale (lot 541).
Enniskillen, William Willoughby Cole, 3rd Earl of (Viscount Cole) (1807-86). County Fermanagh (261).
Etwall, Ralph (5804-82). Andover (49). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 489).
*Eversley, Charles Shaw-Lefevre, 1st Viscount (1794-1888). Hampshire, North (100).
Ewart, William (1798-1869). Liverpool (244).
Fancourt, Charles St John (1804-75). Barnstaple (300).
Farnham, Henry Maxwell, 7th Baron (1799-1868). County Cavan (171).
Fazakerley, John Nicholas (1787-1852). Peterborough (109). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 514).
Feildon, Sir William, Bart (1772-1859). Blackburn (53).
Fenton, John (c.1791-1863). Rochdale (359). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 538).
Ferguson, Robert (before 1773-1840). Kirkcaldy (68).
Ferguson, Sir Ronald Craufurd (1773-1841). Nottingham (162).
Fergusson, Robert Cutlar (1768-1838). Kirkcudbright (96). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 503); copy by pupil (lot 547).
Feversham, William Duncombe, and Baron (1798-1867). Yorkshire, North Riding (195). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 541).
Fielden, John (1784-1849). Oldham 200). Copy by pupil of study, Hayter Sale (lot 557).
Finch, George (1794-1870). Stamford (263).
FitzGibbon, Richard Hobart. See Clare.
Fleetwood, Sir Peter Hesketh, Bart (1801-66). Preston (25). Study, 1834, collection of T. K. Parr, 1939; presumably Hayter Sale (lot 491).
Fleming, Charles Elphinstone (1774-1840). Stirlingshire (54). Copy by pupil of study, Hayter Sale (lot 560).
Folkes, Sir William John Henry Browne, Bart (1786-1860). Norfolk, West (29). Study, 1834, collection of Sir William Folkes, Hillington Hall, 1909.
Forester, George Cecil Weld Weld-Forester, 3rd Baron (1807-86). Wenlock (291). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 511).
Forester, John George Weld Weld-Forester, 2nd Baron (1801-74). (87).
Fortescue, Hugh Fortescue, and Earl (Viscount Ebrington) (1783-1861). Devonshire, North (138). Study engraved by W. Holl, published J. Saunders, 1840 (example in NPG), for 'Political Reformers'.
Fox, Charles Richard (1796-1873). Tavistock (72). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 512).
Fox, Sackville Walter Lane (1800-74). Helston (299).
Fremantle, Thomas Francis. See Cottesloe.
French, Fitzstephen (1801-73). County Roscommon (284). Study, Sabin Galleries, 1970.
Gaskell, Daniel (1782-1875). Wakefield (325). Study, collection of Gaskell family, 1932. Gaskell, James Milnes (5810-73). Wenlock (227). Copy by pupil of study, Hayter Sale (lot 544).
Gladstone, Sir Thomas, Bart (1804-89). Portarlington (229). Copy by pupil of study, Hayter Sale (lot 550).
*Gladstone, William Ewart (1809-98). Newark-upon-Trent (228).
Glynne, Sir Stephen Richard, Bart (1807-74). Flint (106). Study, Gladstone collection, Hawarden Castle.
Goderich, Viscount. See Ripon.
Gordon, William (1784-1858). Aberdeenshire (326). Copy by pupil of study (with Arbuthnott and Hay), Hayter Sale (lot 564).
Goulburn, Henry (1784-1856). Cambridge University (250). Study, 1834, collection of Major-General E. H. Goulburn.
*Graham, Sir James Robert George, Bart (5792-5861). Cumberland, East (146). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 478).
Grant, Francis William Ogilvy. See Seafield.
Grant, Sir Robert (1779-1838). Finsbury (15). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 465).
Greene, Thomas (1794-1872). Lancaster (186).
Greville, Sir Charles John (1780-1836). Warwick (302). Study, 1836, collection of the Earl of Warwick.
*Grey, Charles Grey, 2nd Earl (1764-1845). Prime Minister (9). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 524).
Grey, Henry George Grey, 3rd Earl (Viscount Howick) (1802-94). Northumberland, North (132).
Grimston, Viscount. See Verulam.
Gronow, Rees Howell (1794-1865). Stafford (340). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 543).
Grosvenor, Lord Robert. See Ebury.
*Grote, George (1794-1871). City of London (216). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 479).
Guest, Sir Josiah John, Bart (1785-1852). Merthyr Tydfil (285).
Gully, John (1783-1863). Pontefract (282). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 519).
*Halifax, Charles Wood, 1st Viscount (1800-85). Halifax (97). Copy by pupil of study, Hayter Sale (lot 550).
Hallyburton, Lord Douglas Gordon (1777-1841). Forfarshire (31). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 539).
Hamilton, Charles. Not a member: the picture was painted at his suggestion (374).
*Hanmer, John Hamner, 1st Baron (1809-81). Shrewsbury (226).
Harcourt, George Granville (1785-1861). Oxfordshire (17).
*Hardinge, Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount (1785-1856). Launceston (157).
Hardwicke, Charles Philip Yorke, 4th Earl of (1799-1873). Cambridgeshire (288).
Hardy, John (1773-1855). Bradford (234). Copy by pupil of study, Hayter Sale (lot 561).
Harland, William Charles (1804-63). Durham (318). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 466).
Harrowby, Dudley Ryder, and Earl of (Viscount Sandon) (1798-1882). Liverpool (11).
Harvey, Daniel Whittle (1786-1863). Colchester (221). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 467).
Hastings, Jacob Astley, 16th Baron (1797-1859). Norfolk, West (373).
*Hatherton, Edward John Littleton, 1st Baron (1791-1863). Staffordshire, South (134). Study, 1834, NPG 4658 (this is catalogued elsewhere under Hatherton).
Hay, Sir Andrew Leith (1785-1862). Elgin and Moray (140). Study, 1833, National Trust, Leith Hall, Aberdeenshire.
Hay, Sir John, Bart (1788-1838). Peebleshire (327). Copy by pupil of study (with Arbuthnot and Gordon), Hayter Sale (lot 564).
Hayes, Sir Edmund Samuel, Bart (1806-60). County Donegal (207).
*Hayter, Sir George (1792-1871). The painter of the picture (375).
Heathcote, Gilbert John. See Aveland.
Heneage, George Fieschi (1800-64). Lincoln (119).
Henniker, John Henniker-Major, 4th Baron (1801-70). Suffolk, East (194).
*Herbert, Sidney Herbert, 1st Baron (1810-61). Wiltshire, South (180).
Heron, Sir Robert, Bart (1765-1854). Peterborough (161).
Herries, John Charles (1778-1855). Harwich (252).
Hill, Lord Arthur Marcus Cecil. See Sandys.
Hill, Lord Arthur Moyses William. See Sandys.
Hill, Rowland Hill, 2nd Viscount (1800-75). Salop, North (290). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 500).
Hobhouse, John Cam. See Broughton de Gyfford.
Hodges, Thomas Law (1776-1857). Kent, West (56).
Holland, Henry Richard Vassall Fox, 3rd Baron (1773-1840). (6). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 492).
Horne, Sir William (1774-1860). St Marylebone (152). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 506).
Hotham, Beaumont Hotham, 3rd Baron (1794-1870). Leominster (192).
Howard, Philip Henry (1801-83). Carlisle (52). Study, 1835, collection of Howard family, Corby Castle.
Howick, Viscount. See Grey.
Howley, William (1766-1848). Archbishop of Canterbury (311).
Hudson, Thomas (1772-1852). Evesham (240). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 510); copy by pupil (lot 562).
*Hume, Joseph (1777-1855). Middlesex (218). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 502).
Humphery, John (1794-1863). Southwark (143). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 483).
Hylton, William George Hylton Jolliffe, 1st Baron (1800-76). Petersfield (183). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 494).
Ingham, Robert (1793-1875). South Shields (329). Study, 1838, Bonham's, 30 April 1970 (lot 214), and again 30 July 5970 (lot 217).
Inglis, Sir Robert Harry, Bart (1786-1855). Oxford University (258). Study, Agnew, 1968; presumably Hayter Sale (lot 481); engraved by J. E. Coombs (example in British Museum).
James, William (1791-1861). Carlisle (280). Study, 1838, collection of Selwyn Powell.
Jeffrey, Francis Jeffrey, Lord (1773-1850). Edinburgh (85). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 522); engraved by J. E. Coombs and by Sartain (examples in NPG).
Jermyn, Earl. See Bristol.
Jersey, George Child-Villiers, 5th Earl of (1773-1859). (312).
Jersey, George Augustus Frederick Child-Villiers, 6th Earl of (Viscount Villiers) (1808-59). Honiton (188).
Johnstone, Sir John Vanden Bempde, Bart (1799-1869). Scarborough (67).
Jolliffe, William George Hylton. See Hylton.
Kemp, Thomas Read (1782-1844). Lewes (220).
Kennedy, Thomas Francis (1788-1879). Ayr (154). Study, Scottish NPG; presumably Hayter Sale (lot 487); copy by pupil (lot 546).
Kerrison, Sir Edward, Bart (1774-1853). Eye (225).
Kerry, William Thomas Petty-Fitzmaurice, Earl of (1811-36). Calne (63). Study, collection of the Earl of Powis; copy by pupil, Hayter Sale (lot 552)
King, Edward Bolton (1800-78). Warwick (333).
Knatchbull, Sir Edward, Bart (1785-1849). Kent, East (259). Copy by pupil of study, Hayter Sale (lot 553).
Labouchere, Henry. See Taunton.
Langton, William Gore (1760-1847). Somerset, East (91).
*Lansdowne, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquess of (1780-1863). (3).
Lefroy, Anthony (1800-90). County Longford (177).
Lefroy, Thomas Langlois (1776-1869). Dublin University (255). Study, engraved by H. Robinson (example in British Museum).
Lester, Benjamin Lester (c.1780-1838). Poole (89).
Ley, John Henry (d. 1850). First clerk of the House (158). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 517).
Ley, William (c.1817-47). Assistant clerk of the House (160).
Lincoln, Earl of. See Newcastle.
Lisgar, John Young, 1st Baron (1807-76). County Cavan (179).
Littleton, Edward John. See Hatherton.
Loch, James (1780-1855). Wick (372).
Locke, Wadham (1779-1835). Devizes (116). Study, engraved by J. E. Coombs (example in British Museum).
Londonderry, Frederick William Robert Stewart, 4th Marquess of (Viscount Castlereagh) (1805-72). County Down (165).
Lopes, Sir Ralph, Bart (1788-1854). Westbury (364).
Lowther, Henry Cecil (1790-1867). Westmorland (196). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 490).
Lygon, Henry Beauchamp. See Beauchamp.
*Lyndhurst, John Singleton Copley, Baron (1772-1863). (315).
Lyveden, Robert Vernon Smith, 1st Baron (1800-73). Northampton (142).
*Macaulay, Thomas Babington Macaulay, 1st Baron (1800-59). Leeds (10). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 533).
Macleod, Roderick (1768-1853). Sutherland (43). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 509).
Madocks, John (1786-1837). Denbigh (114). Copy of study, 1841, collection of Mrs S. C. F. Lousada Lloyd, Corwen.
Mahon, Viscount. See Stanhope.
Manners-Sutton, Charles. See Canterbury.
Mansfield, William David Murray, 4th Earl of (Viscount Stormont) (1806-98). Norwich (248). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 476).
Marjoribanks, Stewart (1774-1863). Hythe (41).
Marlborough, George Spencer-Churchill, 6th Duke of (Marquess of Blandford) (1793-1857). Woodstock (237). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 531); copy by pupil (lot 559).
Marshall, John (1797-1836). Leeds (131).
Maxfield, William (1782-1837). Great Grimsby (242). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 485).
Maxwell, Henry. See Farnham.
*Melbourne, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount (1779-1848). (8). Study, 1838, Royal Collection, and also a copy; copies by pupils, Hayter Sale (lots 544 and 559); pencil study for figure, 1837, NPG 4342 (this is catalogued elsewhere under Melbourne).
Mildmay, Paulet St John (1791-1845). Winchester (101). Study, collection of Sir Gerald Mildmay, 1931.
Miller, William Henry (1789-1848). Newcastle-under-Lyme (293). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 526).
Mills, John (1789-1871). Rochester (21).
*Molesworth, Sir William, Bart (1810-55). Cornwall, East (199). Study, reproduced Mrs Fawcett, Life of the Rt Hon Sir William Molesworth (1901), facing p 38.
Monteagle, Thomas Spring-Rice, 1st Baron (1790-1866). Cambridge (151). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 530).
Morpeth, Viscount. See Carlisle.
Mosley, Sir Oswald, Bart (1785-1871). Staffordshire, North (57).
Mostyn, Edward Mostyn Lloyd-Mostyn, 2nd Baron (1795-1884). Flintshire (113).
Murray, Sir John Archibald Murray, Lord (1779-1859). Leith (94).
Newark, Charles Evelyn Pierrepont, Viscount (1805-50). East Retford (125).
*Newcastle, Henry Pelham Pelham-Clinton, 5th Duke of (Earl of Lincoln) (1811-64). Nottinghamshire, South (304). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 530).
Nicholl, John (1797-1853). Cardiff (169). Study, 1833, collection of R. I. Nicholl, Bridgend.
Noël, Sir Gerald Noël, Bart (1759-1838). Rutland (368). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 521); copy by pupil (lot 552).
Norfolk, Henry Charles Howard, 13th Duke of (Earl of Surrey) (1791-1856). Sussex, West (90).
Norreys, Lord. See Abingdon.
North, Frederick (1800-69). Hastings (342).
*Northbrook, Francis Thornhill Baring, 1st Baron (1796-1866). Portsmouth (128). Study, NPG 1257.
*O'Connell, Daniel (1775-1847). Dublin (257). Study, 1834, NPG 4582 (this is catalogued elsewhere under O'Connell).
O'Connor, Dennis (The O'Connor Don) (1794-1847). County Roscommon (275).
O'Ferrall, Richard More (1797-1880). County Kildare (50). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 472).
Oranmore and Browne, Dominick Browne, 1st Baron (1787-1860). County Mayo (84).
Ormelie, Earl of. See Breadalbane.
Ossington, John Evelyn Denison, 1st Viscount (1800-73). Nottinghamshire, South (12). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 469).
Oswald, Richard Alexander (1771-1841). Ayrshire (283).
Paget, Frederick (1807-66). Beaumaris (354). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 535).
Palmer, Robert (1793-1872). Berkshire (232).
*Palmerston, Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount (1784-1865). Hampshire, South (144). Study, collection of Earl Mountbatten, Broadlands.
Patten, John Wilson. See Winmarleigh.
Pease, Joseph (1799-1872). County Durham, South (243).
*Peel, Sir Robert, Bart (1788-1850). Tamworth (249). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 477).
Pendarves, Edward William Wynne (1775-1853). Cornwall, West (112).
Pepys, Charles Christopher. See Cottenham.
Perceval, Alexander (1787-1858). County Sligo (213). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 484).
Philips, Sir George, Bart (1766-1847). Warwickshire, South (135). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 515).
Pinney, William (1806-98). Lyme Regis (107).
Plumptre, John Pemberton (1791-1864). Kent, East (15).
*Pollock, Sir Jonathan Frederick, Bart (1783-1870). Huntingdon (294). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 508).
Ponsonby, William Francis Spencer. See De Mauley.
Portman, Edward Berkeley Portman, 1st Viscount (1799-1888). St Marylebone (370).
Potter, Richard (1778-1842). Wigan (241). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 505).
Poulter, John Sayer (d. 1847). Shaftesbury (80). Study, 1834, collection of Paul Rich, 1972.
Powis, Edward Herbert, 2nd Earl of (Viscount Clive) (1785- 1848). Ludlow (246). Study, collection of the Earl of Powis.
Poyntz, William Stephen (c.1769-1840). Ashburton (71).
Ramsbottom, John (d. 1845). Windsor (26).
Ramsden, John Charles (1788-1837). Malton (122).
Reid, Sir John Rae, Bart (1792-1867). Dover (230).
Rice-Trevor, George Rice. See Dinevor.
Richmond and Lennox, Charles Gordon Lennox, 5th Duke of (1791-1860). (1). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 540).
Rickman, John (1771-1840). Assistant clerk of the House. (159).
Ripon, Frederick John Robinson, 1st Earl of (Viscount Goderrich) (1782-1859).(5).
Rippon, Cuthbert. Gateshead (274).
Robinson, George Richard (1781-1850). Worcester (233).
Roche, William (1775-1850). Limerick (271). Study, Hayter Sale (lot 525).
*Roebuck, John Arthur (1801-79). Bath (215).
Referenceback to top
Art Journal (1859), p 289, and (1860), p 318.
Art-Union (1843), p 122, and (1848), p 81.
Athenaeum, no.806 (1843), 340-1.
Sir G. Hayter, 'A Descriptive Catalogue of the Great Historical Picture of the Interior of the British House of Commons', 1843.
Pope (ed.) 1963
The Diary of Benjamin Robert Haydon, edited W. B. Pope (Cambridge, Mass, 1963), V, 259-60.
The Times, 29 June 1837, 4 April 1843, and 11 August 1858.
Physical descriptionback to top
General diffused golden light, walls deep reddish-brown. Black pillars with gilded capitals supporting gallery. Brass chandeliers. Light brown floor and ceiling. Green curtain at either side framing picture. Foreground dark brown. Most of the figures in dark suits, with white shirts, dark neck-ties and multi-coloured waistcoasts (Breadalbane in red uniform on the left is an exception). The general effect of the painting is relatively subdued.
Provenanceback to top
Purchased by the Government and presented by them, 1858.
This extended catalogue entry is from the out-of-print National Portrait Gallery collection catalogue: Richard Ormond, Early Victorian Portraits, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1973, and is as published then. For the most up-to-date details on individual Collection works, we recommend reading the information provided in the Search the Collection results on this website in parallel with this text.
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