British picture framemakers, 1600-1950 - J
An online resource, launched in 2007, selectively updated twice yearly. Last updated March 2020. Contributions are welcome, to Jacob Simon at [email protected].
*George Jackson by1804-1830, George Jackson & Sons 1830-1907, George Jackson & Sons Ltd from 1907. At 50 Rathbone Place, Oxford St, London by 1817-1856, 49 Rathbone Place 1833-1934, Rathbone Works, Rainville Road, Fulham until the 1980s. Composition ornament makers, initially a glue supplier, later also pâpier maché and carton pierre manufacturers.
George Jackson (1779-1850) is sometimes described as a supplier of composition ornament to Robert Adam for interior architectural use and is said to have laid the foundation in 1780 at 49 Rathbone Place of the firm of G. Jackson & Sons Ltd (Beard 1981 p.266). However, Jackson was not born until 1779, meaning that it would need to be his father, Thomas Jackson (qv), who was associated with Robert Adam. Further research is needed into the early history of this business.
The son of Thomas and Susanna Jackson, George Jackson was born 1 May 1779 and christened at St Mary Marylebone. George Jackson and his wife, Joanna Best, had four sons, George (b.1804), William (b.1805), Thomas (1806-87) and John (1809-76), three of whom were christened at Stockwell Independent New Chapel, Lambeth.
George Jackson seems to have begun his career as a supplier of glue to a wide variety of businesses, as his account book testifies (V&A Archive of Art and Design, AAD/2012/1/2/1). Among his clients, 1804-7, were one or more carpenters, coachbuilders, colourmen, grocers, hatters, ironmongers, japanners and organ builders, as well as a few frame makers, including Guillet (qv) and Vinson. His own father purchased 10.5 cwt of glue from him in 1806 for £49.17s.6d, making him one of his best customers. The next documentary evidence for his activities comes in the same account book which was reused in the years 1811-8. By this time he was working closely with his father, and was producing and supplying composition ornament and applying it to frames, as is discussed in more detail below. Within a generation his business had expanded to embrace the growing demand for architectural and interior decoration (see account book, AAD/2012/1/2/3).
George Jackson is said to have been living at 246 Tottenham Court Road with his father, producing boxwood moulds in reverse and to have acquired 50 Rathbone Place by 1817 (Marion R. May, The ornamental Jacksons: a brief history of George Jackson & Sons Limited, ornamental composition manufacturers, Guildford, 2001, p.7, from information in the archives of George Jackson & Sons Ltd).
George Jackson was appointed composition manufacturer to George IV in February 1825, an appointment which was renewed under William IV (National Archives, LC 3/69 pp.77, 159; his royal warrant repr. by Marion May, p.2). In an 1830 London directory, Jackson described himself as composition ornament manufacturer to his Majesty. His trade card from 50 Rathbone Place, perhaps dating to the later 1820s, describes his business as ‘Composition Ornament Manufacturer, by special appointment to His Majesty… Architects, Surveyors, Builders, Carpenters, Carvers, Gilders, Cabinet Makers, & the Trade in general supplied (Johnson coll. Trade Cards 23 (86). In his double sided advertisement in Robson’s 1829 London directory, Jackson advertised ‘French Ornaments of all descriptions suited for Picture and Glass Frames… for which the splendid style of Louis 14th is remarkable’ and in the same directory in 1836 the business described itself as ‘Manufacturers of Composition Ornaments, and Improved Papier Machée’, offering among other services, ‘A Large Assortment of Picture and Glass Frames’.
George Jackson junior is mentioned in a press report of a fire in adjoining premises in 1830 (The Times 21 January 1830). George Jackson’s son, John, is said to have brought the carton pierre process from France, and his son in turn to have introduced ‘fibrous plaster’ (Beard 1981 p.266). George Jackson & Sons issued several catalogues during the 19th century including one with 34 plates in 1836, First part of the collection of detailed enrichment, and various articles of taste and furniture (copies in British Library, RIBA Library, Winterthur Library); in this, the business describes itself as composition ornament and improved pâpier maché manufacturers, modellers, carvers, and workers in ornamental Roman cement and plaster of Paris. This diversification into mouldings for interior decoration is borne out by the business’s account book, 1836-42. The business won medals at the 1851 and 1862 London exhibitions, and the 1855, 1867 and 1878 Paris exhibitions, as it claimed in London trade directories.
The partnership, George Jackson & Sons, composition ornament makers, underwent various changes. George Jackson the younger withdrew in 1833, leaving George Jackson the elder and two of his other sons, Thomas and John, to carry on the business (London Gazette 24 September 1833). George Jackson the elder died at his residence in Ealing in his 72nd year as announced in August 1850 (The Times 7 August 1850). In his will, made 9 July and proved 19 September 1850, Jackson made provision for his wife Joanna, his three daughters and two of his sons, excluding two other sons, Thomas and John, ‘because I consider that they have been amply provided for in the business which they have carried on in partnership with me’.
Thomas Jackson withdrew from his partnership with John Jackson in 1851 (London Gazette 21 January 1851). John Jackson then went into partnership with his sons, John Jackson the younger and Edward Elliot Jackson, until he withdrew from the partnership in 1868 (London Gazette 23 June 1868). The later history of the business is not traced here but it is worth noting that in 1907 the partners, Edward Elliot Jackson (1838-1910), Edward Francis Jackson (1870-1950) and Elliot George Jackson (1874-1951), announced that their partnership had been converted into a private company, George Jackson & Sons Ltd (London Gazette 23 April 1907). Some 850 reverse-carved boxwood moulds and related objects with a provenance to the George Jackson business were given to the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1989 (Burlington Magazine, vol.135, 1993, p.444; see also Bilbey 2002 p.309).
The Jackson account books: Evidence for George Jackson’s activities comes in three account books, the earliest in an incomplete series recently acquired by the V&A Archive of Art and Design (AAD/2012/1/2/1-3). The first records his work as a supplier of glue, 1804-7 (see above) and his framing activities, 1812-8, providing a wealth of revealing detail (AAD/2012/1/2/1). The book opens with the account of the leading harp maker, Sebastien Erard, who was charged £66, apparently in 1811 (‘To 55 harps ornamentd compleat @ 24/-‘). But most of Jackson’s clients were picture framemakers, as is discussed below, or in some cases were trading in looking glasses, curtain poles, cornices or architectural decoration.
The second account book, a small indexed cash book for out-of-town customers, 1828-36, provides little detail beyond the names of customers and the amounts spent year by year (AAD/2012/1/2/2). These include Brydone in Leicester, Callaghan and Del Vechio in Dublin, Davis, Ryman and Wyatt (qv) in Oxford, Elder, Nicholson & Co and ‘Paten’ (Hugh Paton?) in Edinburgh, Finlay (qv) in Glasgow, Grundy & Fox (qv) in Manchester and Hay (qv) in Aberdeen. Presumably it was compo ornament that Jackson was supplying to these businesses.
The third, a very large unindexed London cash book, 1836-42, again gives only names and amounts spent (AAD/2012/1/2/3). It is evident that the balance of Jackson’s business had shifted towards interior decoration. Nevertheless, the book includes many well-known picture framemakers, of whom twenty-five are found in this online resource: William Biggs, John Brooker, William Brooks, Nathaniel Castile, James Chance, George Cooper, William Cribb, Frederick Draycott, Peter Ferraro, Thomas Fielder, George Foord, William Froom, Joseph Green, James Charles Guillet, James Henderson, Samuel Jennings, B.L. Lecand, George Morant & Son, Charles Nosotti, Thomas Ponsonby & Son, James Ryan, Thomas Temple, William Thomas, John Vokins and Edward Wyatt junr. Wyatt ordered goods to the huge sum of £1273 in 1838 (at a time he was working on Buckingham Palace). Interestingly Lecand’s account and that of another maker, Thomas Smart of Greek St, is sometimes marked, ‘paid by gilding’, suggesting that they undertook gilding work for Jackson. The cash book also includes accounts for three members of the Jackson family.
Framing and other work: The first of the three account books provides an insight into the picture framing trade in London in the 1810s and is discussed here in detail (the immediately preceding and subsequent account books in the series are missing). At the time, Jackson’s clientele included harp makers requiring elaborate ornament to enrich instruments, and builders and decorators seeking mouldings for interiors. But most of his customers were carvers and gilders, usually picture and mirror framemakers. A partial list of clients, 1811-8, is given in Appendix 1 and a list of terms used to describe ornament in Appendix 2. The following paragraphs looks firstly at Jackson’s own working arrangements and then at framing and the spread of ornament in Regency London.
By 1811 Jackson had given up his original business as a manufacturer of glue and was producing composition ornament for many leading makers. Some of his work was conducted on a subcontracted basis for his father, Thomas Jackson, who was in his mid-sixties at the time. Hence we learn about his father’s clientele (see the entry below for Thomas Jackson). We can also see how many of his father’s patrons became good customers of his own.
With the exception of a very few private individuals, George Jackson’s clientele consisted overwhelmingly of professional men in business, many of them leaders in their particular line in London, including Sebastien Erard, the harp maker, and John Smith, picture framemaker to the King from 1812. From 1816 there is evidence of Jackson’s regional trade, which stretched to Brighton, Exeter, Oxford, Bedford, Norwich, Derby, Leicester, Lancaster, York and Glasgow, and included leading carvers and gilders and other businesses. By the late 1820s, this trade was sufficiently developed for him to keep a separate account book for out-of-town customers (AAD/2012/1/2/2).
As to the London trade, two features stand out in the account book: the circulation of ornament design and the integrated and specialised nature of the trade.
George Jackson, like the leading carver and gilder, John Smith (qv) in his account book, uses straightforward decorative and architectural terms for running mouldings and standard details, e.g. Roman ogee, Gothic ogee, egg ovolo, parsley leaf, raffle leaf, water leaf, oak leaves, vine leaves, honeysuckle, palm foliage, flowers, money and French strap. But the names of his more elaborate ornament derive from individual framemakers and take forms like Ferraros Grecian honeysuckle, Leaders new corners, Pratts shells, Temples corners or Woodburns sweeps (a much fuller listing is given in Appendix 2). The naming of ornament in this way seems to be a feature peculiar to this period on the evidence currently available. In an earlier generation taste in ornament developed through the circulation of engraved designs, the movement of craftsmen and the copying of carving. It was only with the introduction of composition ornament (‘compo’) in the 1770s, produced using moulds to press out decorative features, that it became possible to build up very large ‘libraries’ of ornament which could then be produced at short notice. Most framemakers probably kept a range of their own moulds and would only resort to Jackson or other specialist composition ornament makers on occasion. Others, such as Joseph Green (qv) made much more use of Jackson, obtaining much if not most of their composition ornament from him. The size of the trade in London allowed such specialisation to function.
It must have been common knowledge within the trade that ornament designs originated by one maker would rapidly be taken up elsewhere. In one instance, relating to the framemaker, Allan Woodburn (qv), we can document the process. On 22 August 1812, George Jackson charged his father for ‘Cutting the Sett of Moulds Compleat from Woodbourn’s frame’, listing all the parts, at a total cost of £8 (AAD/2012/1/2/1, p.21). This would have enabled the ornament on this frame to be reproduced, whether to meet an order from Woodburn himself or to allow Thomas Jackson to copy the decoration on Woodburn’s frame for his own use in supplying ornament and making frames for other makers.
The relationship between Jackson and two leading framemaking businesses, those of Allan Woodburn and John Smith, are explored in revealing detail in the entries in this resource for these makers.
The increasing professionalisation of the trade is apparent in another way. Several leading businesses provided Jackson with frame numbers or order numbers when subcontracting work to him, as can be seen from the entries in his account book for the framemakers, Cooper, Cribb, Saunders and Woodburn, the cabinetmaker Morel & Hughes and the harp maker Dodd. To take the two most revealing cases, George Cooper used a sequence of numbers in the range 4000 to 6400 while Woodburn’s run up to about 630, only to repeat from about February the following year. It is even possible to extrapolate and tentatively suggest that Jackson may have been involved in as much as 7% of Cooper’s work and between 4% and 13% of Woodburn’s, varying year-by-year, if indeed these makers used numbers for all their incoming orders. In another instance, Morel & Hughes, cabinetmakers and upholsterers to George IV, the numbers used are much higher (34271 for a wreath of flowers, 34380 for a gothic pattern and 34311 for foliage). These numbers may perhaps be read as items 271, 311 and 380 in order book 34, or even in order 34, but the possibility that we are dealing with mould numbers rather than frame or order numbers needs to be acknowledged. This is a subject that merits further exploration.
Most moulds seem to have been made out of boxwood, as is specified when Jackson produced moulds for Sebastien Erard in 1812 . But other materials were sometimes used, including brass and sulphur. Jackson noted an order for ’27 ft Gothic oak out of Brass mould’ in 1815, casts from metal moulds for Thomas Ponsonby in 1816 and sulphur moulds for Ponsonby again in 1816 and George Eichel in 1817. As to who produced moulds, it is possible to instance James Byfield the younger (c.1803-1853?), successor to the Byfield (qv) business as carvers and gilders, who found it sufficiently prestigious to advertise that he had been several years mould carver to Messrs Jackson.
Not all of George Jackson’s business went through his account book. In the case of John Linnell Jackson sold him second hand frames rather than composition ornament: four old carved frames at £7.7s, four small metal ones at £1.4s and further frames totalling £4.3s.6d, all in 1817, and an old frame for ‘Mr Simpsons Picture’ at £1.4s in 1818 (see Linnell’s cash book, Fitzwilliam Museum, MS 20-2000).
Geo. Jackson & Sons, composition ornament manufacturers, presented a bill to Charles Barry, covering work done in August 1830 (Manchester Archives and Local Studies: Royal Manchester Institution, M6/1/50/p141). The business supplied various large glass frames and picture frames for Buckingham Palace at a cost of £188 in 1840 (DEFM). It was employed by Queen Victoria, 1846-57 (Joy 1969 p.684).
Sources: Marion R. May, The ornamental Jacksons: a brief history of George Jackson & Sons Limited, ornamental composition manufacturers, Guildford, 2001 (identifying George Jackson’s life dates, the birth and christening of his sons, The Times notice of his death and his will; kindly drawn to my attention by Liz Harper). For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.
Appendix 1: List of Jackson’s clients, 1812-8
The following is a full listing of Jackson’s customers, as found in his account book (V&A Archive of Art and Design, AAD/2012/1/2/1). Most entries belong to the years from 1812 until 1817. Sebastien Erard’s account appears to commence in 1811, while a very few accounts continue into 1818. Where given, addresses derive from Jackson’s account book. Square brackets indicate editorial additions, while Jackson’s erratic spelling has sometimes been silently corrected.
Fontaine, Dorking, Surrey, 1814, Miss Gardiner, Epsom, 1816, Hawkridge, 1812, J. Trotter Esq, Soho Square, 1817.
Businesses outside London (*carver and gilder/picture framemaker)
*[William] Bowman, Brighton, 1817, *[Charles?] Brydone, gilder, Leicester, 1817, [Charles] Cole, Exeter, 1817, Doddison, York, 1816, *Freeman [& Son] (qv), Norwich, 1817, *[Robert] Moseley, Derby, 1817, *[Thomas] Riley, carver and gilder, Leicester, 1817, *James Ryman, Oxford, 1816, Shrigley & Son, painter, Lancaster, 1817, Spelton, Bedford, 1816, James Willis, carver and gilder, Nelson St, Glasgow, 1817.
Harp makers in London
[Alexander] Barry, Greek St, 1815-7; Dodd, St Martin’s Lane, 1815-7, Marchmont St, 1817, Sebastien Erard, Great Marlborough St, 1811-2, Goddard, Newman St, 1814-6, Smart, Garod? St, 1814-7, Weatherall, 1816, [Charles] Wheatstone, musical instrument maker, 1817.
All other businesses in London (*picture framemakers)
Adams, 1817-8, Alsop, Fulham, 1816, *Ashlin & Collings, 1816-7, *[Charles] Ayles, 1817, Bailey, Carnaby Market, 1815-7, Baines & Co, Borough, 1817, Baker, brass founder, 1816, *Barker, Union St, 1813-6, *Barnard, Great Titchfield St, 1812-6, Bartlett, Duck Lane, 1816-7, Beaumont, 1817, Bennet, 1815-8, Black, 1816, [Peter] Bogearts, Air St, 1815-6, Bowles, 1817, *Brock, 1817, *[John?] Brooker (qv), 1816-7, *[William] Brown, Great Titchfield St, 1812-7, Brown, John St 1817, Brown, Pulteney St 1818, Brown, Warwick St, 1817, followed by Mr Brown Estate 1818, *Burger, Hanway St, 1812-3, Burlet [William Bourlet?], 1817, Burnet [?], St John St, Clerkenwell, 1816, *[Thomas?] Byfield (qv), Compton St, Soho, 1812-7, Carter, Dean St, 1817, *Carter & Carter, Swallow St, 1814-5, *Benjamin Charpentier (qv), Great Titchfield St, 1812-6, *[J.] Cleets/Cleates, 1816, Cock, see Miles & Cock, Coe, 1814, Colyer/Collier, 1816, *[George] Cooper (qv), Piccadilly, 1813-7, Samuel Cooper, 1817, *[George?] Crawford, Westminster, 1817-8, *[Robert] Cribb & Son (qv), Holborn, 1812-7, *William Cribb junr (qv), 1813-6, [Thomas] Cubit[t], [builder], Grays Inn Lane, 1816-7, Cursons/Carsons, 1816-7, *[Charles] Cutter, Warwick St, 1813-5, later Cutter & Brown, 1815-6, *[Robert] Davy (qv), Wardour St, 1814-7, *Day, 1817, Deakin, 1816 p.404, *Delcour, Rathbone Place, 1816-7, Dolman & Son, 1817, *Dunn, 1814, *[John] Eckford (qv), Water Lane, 1813-8, Edwards, St Pancras, 1816, [George] Eichel, 1816-7, Elliot/Eliot & Co, 1817, *Ellwick, 1813, Ellwick & Overend, 1813, Overend, 1813-4, *Everingham & Simpson (Simpson & Everingham), 1816-7, Everingham & Co, 1817, *[James] Eyles, 1815-6, Faullin? 1817, *[Thomas] Fentham (qv), 1817, [Peter] Ferraro (qv), 1814-7, [Robert] Flinn, Stacey St, 1813-7, Ford, 1815-7, perhaps identical with Ford, Hollen St, 1817, *[William Henry] Freeman (qv), Princes St, 1814-7, *Fricker & Henderson (qv), 1817, *[Joseph] Garbanati (qv), 1813-7, *Garrod, 1812-6, Gerrard/Gerrod, 1817, *Gibson & Snellson, 1813, *Goat [John Goate?], 1815-7, *[W.] Goslett, South Molton St, 1814-7, *[Philip] Goyer senr (qv), 1813-4, [Benjamin] Goyer junr, Newman St, 1813-4, Gray, Titchfield St, 1814, *[Joseph] Green (qv), Charles St, 1812-7, Gretten, 1817, [P.] Guichard, 1817, *[James] Guillet (qv), Hollin St, 1813-8, Hall, 1816-7, *Harris & Pearse (qv), Conduit St, 1815-7, Hide/Hyde, 1814, Hiscox, Thames St, 1815, Hollenshed junr, 1812-3, *[Robert?] Hume, 1817, Ingleton, 1815-7, *Thomas Jackson, Tottenham Court Road, 1812-7, *[James] Jenkins, Strand 1814-5, Jenks, 1817, Jennins, Compton St, 1816, Jewel [William Jewell?], 1817, *Johnson, Gloucester St, Queens Square, 1816-7, Jones, Kensington, 1815, *Jordan & Evans (qv), 1814-6, Keats, 1816, *[Daniel] Kennedy, Rathbone Place, 1814-7, *[Thomas] Kingham (qv), 1816, [William] Knox, Newington, 1813-8, Lambert, 1816, Langford, Westminster, 1815-6, *Laurence, Castle St, 1812-6, *Leadre? 1816, *Legg, 1812-7, Lewis? 1813?, *[James] Linnell (qv), 1813-6, Lovel, 1814?, *[David] McLauchlan, 1817-8, McLayne & Son, 1812-3, William McLean, 1814, Maddox, 1816, Marshall, Holborn, 1813, Mearl [Thomas Merle?] 1815, *[James and Robert] Milbourne (qv), Strand, 1815-6, *[James] Miles & [James] Cock, Orange St, 1814, Cock, Orange St 1815, Miller, 1813, Miller, Treble & Co, 1814, *[George] Morant (qv), Bond St, 1817, Morrel & Hughes, 1816-7, Morgan, Dover St, 1814, *Morris, Baker Orchard St 1813-4, Nash & Co, Dover St, 1812, Nash, Dover St, 1813, Neary, 156 Bond St, 1816, Overend, see Ellwick, *[Thomas] Paley, Castle St, 1814-7, Palmer, Hide St, 1814-5, Parker, Stephen St, 1817, Parkinson, 1816, Pennet? 1816, *Pitts, 1814-6, *[Thomas] Ponsonby (qv), Piccadilly, 1813-6, Porter, Stephen St, 1815-7, Price, x…ting maker, 1812, [Edward] Ratcliff/Radcliffe, Brewer St, 1814-6, *[Hugh] Richards, Strand, 1814?, Robinson/Robertson, 1814, perhaps identical with Robertson/Robinson, Bowling Green Lane, 1815-7, Robertson/Robinson, Dean St, 1816-7, Robertson, Gress St, 1815, *Rutherford, 1816, *Salway, 1816, Saunders, Union St, 1815-6, *[Thomas?] Saunders (qv), Castle St, 1813-4, *[Frederick?] Seaton, Crown Court, 1814, Simpson & Everingham, see Everingham, *[William] Sibley, Castle St, King’s Mews, 1812-4, *Sinnot? 1816-7, *[John] Smith (qv), Swallow St, 1812-6, *[Robert] Smith, Coxspur St, 1813-6, *[Samuel] Smith, Lisle St, 1815, James Street, 1816-8, Smith, Marylebone St, 1817, Smith, Union St, 1816-7, *Solomon, 1814-7, *Soward, 1813-7, *Soward junr, Tottenham Court Road, 1814, perhaps identical with Soward, mason, 1818?, Spackman, 1817, *Spencer, 1813-4, *[Henry] Stephens, Litchfield St, 1814-5, also as Great Titchfield St, 1814-5, [William] Stephens, Piccadilly, 1817, Steuart, painter, Jermyn St, 1817, Strange, 1817, Sweet, 1816, Sweeton/Sweeten, 1817, *[John] Syers, Dufours Place, Broad St, 1814, *[James] Taylor/Tayler, Fetter Lane, 1816-7, Teasdel, 1817, Thompson, Oxford St, 1812-3, Thorn, 1816, *[Michael] Tijou (qv), Greek St, 1813-4, [Richard] Tomlinson, Cambridge St, 1812, *[George] Towns[h]end, Wardour St, 1812-4, Tratt & Attfield, 1817, Trot/Trott, 1817, Turner, Bond St, 1817, *[William?] Wade, 1813-8, *[William] Walker, Drury Lane, 1812-3, *Walton, Wardour St 1816, *Ward, 1815-7, Wells, 1816, Wilkie, 1816, [William] Wilkinson, Ludgate Hill, 1815, Williams, 1813?, *Willit, St Pancras, 1815, Wood, 1817, *[Allen] Woodburn (qv), 1812-7, Woodward, 1813?, Wright, 1817, *[Edward] Wyatt (qv), Oxford St, 1816-7.
Appendix 2: Jackson’s terminology for ornament, 1812-8
The following is a fairly complete listing of Jackson’s terminology for ornament designated by personal names, as found in his account book (V&A Archive of Art and Design, AAD/2012/1/2/1). In addition, Jackson used many other descriptive and architectural terms for ornament.
Ayles/Eyles corners, 1815-7, pillars by Eyles 1816; Barkers mitres 1815; Bogerth flowers 1814, Bogaerts/Bogearts sprigs 1815-7; Bowers foliage 1812-6, Bowers small foliage 1813-7, Bowers mid foliage 1816, Bowers large foliage 1813, Bowers centres 1813, Bowers vine 1816, Bowers corners 1817, Bowers middle 1817; Bullmers corners 1813; Carls bands 1815-7, Collins foliage 1816, Collins shell 1816; Colyers/Collier corners 1815-7; Coopers foliage 1815-7; Cribbs sweeps 1815-7; Cutters corners 1813-7, Cutters small corners 1817; Cutters foliages 1817, Cutters large flowers 1817; Darby corners/corners and middles 1812-7, Old Derby corners 1817, New Derby corners 1817, Darby mitres 1812-7, large Darby mitre leaves 1813, mid Darby mitres 1815, Darby flowers 1813-6; Davys/Davey mitres 1814-7, Davys small mitres 1816-7, Davys large mitres 1817; Dodds bands 1815, Dodds leaves 1816, Dodds harp leaves 1817;
Eckfords pattern 1816; Ferraros honeysuckle & foliage 1815, Feraros foliages 1816, Ferraras shell foliage 1817, Ferraros Grecian honeysuckle 1817; Fishers strap 1817; Flinns corner shells 1816-7; Goyers leaves 1816; Greens corners 1812-7, Greens middles 1813; Harrises corners 1813, Harrises mid[dle] 1814-5; Hides shells 1817; Jordans corners 1816, Jordans shell, 1816-7, Jordan shells & undershells for corners & centre 1817; Launders? flower 1817; Leaders corners 1815-7, Leaders new corners 1815, Leaders foliage 1815-7, Leaders new foliage leaves 1816, Leaders centres 1817; Linnells ogee inside 1816;
Merrits corner 1817, Husks out of Merrits middle 1817; Pine/Pyne middles 1814-7, Pine corners 1814-5; Ponsonbys honeysuckles 1816-7, Ponsonby husk 1816, Ponsonbys pateras 1817; Pratts shells 1813-6, Prat Shell & frill centre 1817, Pratts foliage 1815-6; Ratcliff honeysuckle & foliage 1816, Saunders flowers 1813-7, Sibleys corners 1813-6; Smarts corners 1813-8, Smarts top corners 1816, Smarts large corners 1817, Old Smarts corners 1817, Smarts middles 1813, Smarts large bands 1815, Smarts foliage 1818; Smiths corners 1812-7, Smiths English corners 1816, Smiths middles 1813, Smiths flowers 1813-8, Smiths sprigs by Simpson 1814, Smiths corners & sprigs 1816, Smiths sprigs 1817, Smiths foliage 1817;
Temples corners & centres 1812, Temples foliage 1813-4, Temples water leaf 1815-7, Temples small water leaf 1817, Temples shells & husk 1816, Temples bands 1816, Temples double foliage 1816-7, Temples rich ornament 1817; Thorns strap 1816-7; Thorps middles 1813-7; Tissots foliage 1816, Tissots large foliage 1816-7; Tuzetts 1812-6, Tuzetts & sprig 1812-6, large Tuzettes 1813-5, Woodburn Tuzettes 1813, small Woodburn Tuzettes 1813, Woodburns corners & Tuzettes 1813, Tuzettes flowers 1814, Tusets & Smiths flowers 1817, Old Tussets 1816-7, Large Old Tussets 1816;
Wards flowers 1815, Wards corners 1815-7, Wards corners & sprigs 1816-7; Watts strap 1816; Woodburns corners & Tuzettes 1813, Woodburns inside corners 1815-6, Woodburns sulphur corners 1815/16, Woodburns large top corners 1816, Woodburns new corners & middles 1816, Woodburns corner pieces 1817, Woodburns small corner pieces 1817, Woodburns goloss 1816-7, Woodburns ovolo 1816-7, Woodburns sweeps 1816, Woodburns back sweeps 1817, Woodburns new oge 1817, Woodburns back shells & frills 1817, Woodburns new bands 1817; Woods flowers 1813-7; Woods scrolls 1816-7; Gothic ornaments out of Wyatts mould 1817.
Updated September 2017
Robert P. Jackson 1866? 1868-1891, Robert Jackson & Son 1892-1894 or later, Robert Jackson & Sons by 1900 to date. At 3 Slater St, Liverpool by 1868-1924, 18a Slater St 1925-1941, 20 Slater St 1943 to date. Carvers and gilders, picture framemakers, printsellers, artists' colourmen and picture restorers.
The business claims to have been established in 1866, according to its later invoice paper. Robert Proctor Jackson (c.1833-1915) was listed in 1870 (Gore’s directory), and in 1888 with shops at 3 Slater St and 71 Wood St, Liverpool W. He was recorded in the 1881 census as a carver and gilder, age 47, living at 2 Sugnall St, with wife and four sons; the eldest, John Jackson, age 21, a carver and gilder. He died in 1915, described as a carver and gilder, leaving an estate of £5977, with probate granted to John Edward Jackson and Robert Henry Jackson, carvers and gilders, who presumably carried on the business, and to William James Bolwell, merchant.
Jackson’s had an account with the artists' suppliers, Roberson, trading from 3 Slater St, 1879-1908 (Woodcock 1997). The business advertised in The Year's Art from 1897 until 1925. Jackson's label has been recorded on a work of 1869 (information from Cathy Proudlove). The business supplied the frame for Edwin Pettitt's A View of Bala Lake, 1889 (Royal Collection, see Millar 1992 no.547). It acted as Liverpool agent for the ‘Titian’ Medium Manufacturing Co (qv) in 1902.
Jackson’s also restored pictures, including Andrea Casali’s Sophonisba Taking Poison and The Continence of Scipio (Halton Borough Council, Runcorn, Lancashire, information from Timothy Stevens, who saw these two enormous rather damaged paintings in Jackson’s shop window in the mid-1960s, when they were being treated by Mr Brewer, the then proprietor).
The business continues to trade at 20 Slater St, advertising art materials and a framing service at http://www.rjacksonandsons.co.uk/ and claiming Augustus John and Stuart Sutcliffe as past customers.
For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.
Thomas Jackson, Holborn, London by 1799, Tottenham Court Road 1800-1804, 246 Tottenham Court Road 1805-1832. Composition ornament maker.
If a member of the Jackson family did indeed work with Robert Adam, as George Jackson & Sons later claimed, then it would have been Thomas Jackson (1746-1832) rather than his son, George Jackson (qv). Thomas is said to have traded as an ornamental composition manufacturer and framemaker in Tottenham Court Road from the unlikely early date of 1763 and then in 1793 to have taken out a lease on a new house at 246 Tottenham Court Road for a term of 31 years (see Marion R. May, The ornamental Jacksons: a brief history of George Jackson & Sons Limited, ornamental composition manufacturers, 2001, p.7). Thomas Jackson, composition ornament maker of 246 Tottenham Court Road took out insurance in 1824 with the Sun Fire Office (London Metropolitan Archives, 499/1019036).
Thomas Jackson was baptised in March 1746 at Selkirk (see Sources below). He married Susanna Jackson at St George Hanover Square in 1772 and they had five children, Mary in 1773, Thomas in 1774, George in 1776 (presumably died young), George in 1779 and Sarah in 1781, christened at St Mary Marylebone, and other children who remain to be traced. Thomas Jackson of Tottenham Court Road was buried on 24 October 1832, age 86, at St Mary Marylebone. In his will, made 23 June 1819 and proved 27 November 1832, Thomas Jackson, composition ornament maker, left his lease on 246 Tottenham Court Road to his son, George, composition ornament maker of Rathbone Place, together with his ‘moulds and working utensils’, on condition that he take these moulds and utensils on a valuation, otherwise both the lease and the moulds were to be sold for the benefit of his other son, Thomas, and his daughters, Mary, Sarah, Elizabeth and Charlotte. His premises in Tottenham Court Road were subsequently occupied by Benjamin Louis Lecand (qv).
Framing work: In his later years, at least in the period 1812-7, Thomas Jackson obtained frames from his son, George Jackson, to allow him to meet orders from various leading picture framemakers, as is apparent from George’s account book (V&A Archive of Art and Design, AAD/2012/1/2/1). For example, in 1812 George supplied him with ‘1 large frame for Woodbourn’, ‘2 frames for Saunders’ and ‘1 frame for Guillet’, who can be identified with Allen Woodburn (qv), Thomas or James Saunders (qv) and James Charles Guillet (qv). Thomas Jackson’s other clients who can be identified in this way include Brown, Derby, Eichel, Garrod, Hill, Ingleton, Jenkins, Johnson, Jordan & Co (qv), Kemp, Ponsonby (qv), Ratcliff, Salway, Smith of Cockspur St, Smith [of Swallow St] (qv), Taylor, Temple (qv) and Willit. On 22 August 1812, George charged his father for ‘Cutting the Sett of Moulds Compleat from Woodbourn’s frame’, listing all the parts, at a total cost of £8 (AAD/2012/1/2/1, p.21). This would have enabled the ornament on this frame to be reproduced, whether to meet an order from Woodburn or to allow Thomas Jackson to copy the ornament on Woodburn’s frame for his own use. Generally Thomas Jackson is referred to in the account book as ‘Mr Jackson father’ but in one case simply as ‘Father’ (AAD/2012/1/2/1, p.53).
Descriptions such as 'Jacksons rich shell moulding', 'Jacksons egg' and 'Jacksons frill’d edge', appear in the framemaking account books of John Smith (qv) from 1812, confirming that George Jackson, or his father, Thomas, were among the sources he used for ornament. Indeed, both men supplied Smith with picture frames and composition ornaments for his frames, as is apparent from George Jackson’s account book.
Sources: Information from Marion R. May on Thomas Jackson’s baptism and burial, the former supplied to her by the late Bob Lindsay, and from Liz Harper on Jackson’s marriage). For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.
*Benjamin Jagger (active 1762-95, d.1821), Norwich, see Jeremiah Freeman and John Thirtle
Charles Francis James, 32 Edward St, Portman Square, London 1841-1843, 9 Upper Berkeley St 1844-1847, 107 Great Russell St, Bloomsbury 1848-1849, 35 Princes St, Soho 1851-1878, 63 Wardour St, Soho 1879-1889. Picture restorer from 1841, also carver and gilder from 1855, picture dealer and importer.
See British picture restorers on the National Portrait Gallery website.
Alfred Jeffries 1878-1884, A. Jeffries & Co 1884-1886, Moulding & Artists’ Materials Manufactory Co Ltd 1886-1887. At2-3 Maynard St, Bloomsbury, London 1878-1884, 443 Oxford St 1880-1882, 107 New Oxford St and Grove Works, Este Road/ Estate Road, Clapham Junction 1883-1887. Manufacturer of mouldings, frames, colours and canvas. Later trading as Alfred Jeffries & Co, 19 Pilgrim St, Ludgate Hill EC 1894-1898, 95 New Oxford St 1896-1908, picture framemakers.
See British artists' suppliers on the National Portrait Gallery website.
**Samuel Jennings 1824-1850, Samuel Jennings & Son 1849-1852, Samuel Jennings 1852-1885. At 5 Goswell St, London by 1826-1837, 8 Goswell St 1837-1851,16 Duke St, Manchester Square 1850-1885, 8 Bulstrode Mews, Manchester Square 1871-1885. Carver and gilder, picture and looking glass framemaker and dealer.
Samuel Jennings (c.1798-1885) was born at Trell in Somerset in about 1798, the son of William Jennings (see census records, 1851, 1871, 1881, and marriage registers, 1856, 1870). He married three times, firstly to Hannah probably before 1822 (she died in 1856, see The Times 21 May 1856), secondly to Elizabeth Jane Bland, a widow, in 1856, and thirdly to Hannah Holme, a widow, in 1870. Jennings was in London trading as a carver and gilder, probably by 1824, as his later trade label claimed. His second son, Samuel, was born in 1827. He took out insurance on 8 Goswell St in 1837 and 1838, as carver, gilder, picture and looking glass framemaker and dealer in pictures and looking glasses (London Metropolitan Archives, Sun Fire Office policy registers, 558/1283076, 1283078 & 1263149, 559/1256532). He was a customer of the composition ornament maker, George Jackson & Sons (qv), 1837-41 (see Jackson account book, V&A Archive of Art and Design, AAD/2012/1/2/3).
It would seem from entries in London directories that the son, Samuel Jennings junr, was working as a carver and gilder at 12 King’s Square, Goswell Road, by 1848, and at 11 Boswell Road in 1849 and 1850. He entered into an arrangement to join his father by 1849, but this short-lived partnership as Samuel Jennings & Son, carvers, gilders, print sellers and looking glass manufacturers at 8 Goswell St and 16 Duke St, Manchester Square, was dissolved in 1852 (London Gazette 7 December 1852). Samuel Jennings senr, sometimes so described in directories, continued the business in Duke St, while his son, Samuel Jennings the younger, carver and gilder of Goswell St, was made bankrupt in 1855 (London Gazette 28 August 1855).
In censuses, Samuel Jennings senr can be found in 1841 in Ilminster as a carver, with wife Hannah, in 1851 at 8 Goswell St as a gilder and picture framemaker, age 52, without wife but with two apprentices, Peter Tacchi and Ernest France, both age 19, in 1861 at 16 Duke St as a carver and gilder, age 63, with his wife Elizabeth Jane, in 1871 at 16 Duke St as a master carver and gilder, age 72, with wife Hannah, and three grandchildren including Edwin S. Smith, age 18, a carver and gilder, and in 1881 at Ramsgate as a carver and gilder, age 83, with wife Hannah and a grand-daughter. He died at Ramsgate in 1885, age 86, leaving a personal estate of £1993, his will proved by his widow (The Standard 29 January 1885, where his age at death was given as 66). He was followed in business by his grandson, Edwin Smith Jennings.
Jennings's trade label reads 'Carver, Gilder & Printseller, 16 Duke Street, Manchester Square, London. To her Majesty the Queen & the Royal Family. Estab’d 1824' (example on Edwin Smith's miniature, James Silk Buckingham, 1837, National Portrait Gallery). This label is often found on print frames.
George Robert Jennison (1871-1949?),Grimsby, see Bennett & Jennison Ltd
*A.W. Johnson, 58 Westbourne Grove, Bayswater, London 1877-1883, 62a Westbourne Grove 1884-1915, 20 Lower Phillimore Place, Kensington Road 1895-1899, renamed and numbered 1899, 136 High St, Kensington 1900-1905, 152 High St, Kensington 1906-1929, 5 Kensington High St 1929-1940. Picture dealer, from 1885 gilder and picture framemaker.
Arthur Walford Johnson (c.1853-1934), son of Edward Johnson, an artist, was first listed in business in 1877 at 58 Westbourne Grove, premises previously occupied by William Johnson, picture dealer, presumably a relative. Arthur Johnson was recorded in the 1881 census as a picture dealer, age 28, born Lambeth, living at his parent’s home in Richmond, Surrey. In the 1901 census he was listed at 136 High St, Kensington, as a picture framemaker, age 48, born Stockwell. He died in 1934 at Leigh-on-Sea, leaving effects worth £1071, with probate granted to Frank Cresswell Johnson, civil servant, and Edward Stanley Johnson, picture dealer.
Arthur Walford Johnson advertised regularly in The Year's Art as a gilder, picture framemaker and fine art dealer, also offering in 1920 to clean, line and restore paintings, featuring original etchings and colour reproductions in 1925 and offering 'The Johnson Gallery' as available for one-man shows in 1933. He appears to have been responsible for regilding the Alhambra frame of Lowes Cato Dickinson’s Charles Kingsley (National Portrait Gallery), c.1905-15 (later than the date suggested in Simon 1996 p.172).
Updated September 2014
Robert Johnson, Frith St, Soho, London 1735-1761, The Golden Head, Frith St by 1737. Carver and gilder, framemaker.
Robert Johnson was described by Thomas Johnson (qv), his cousin and apprentice from 1737, as 'the worst carver I ever knew' (Simon 2003 p.2). Robert Johnson took further apprentices, John Chandler in 1740 for £12.12s, Samuel Hartley in 1744 for £4.4s and Joshua Chenu in 1746 for £17.10s. Chandler applied to the Middlesex Court of Sessions for his discharge in 1748, claiming among other things to have been badly housed and not taught the art of gilding (London Metropolitan Archives, MJ/SP/1748/02/14).
Robert Johnson traded at the Golden Head in Frith St, 1735-61. His rococo-style trade card states that he ‘Makes all Sorts of Carv’d frames for Marble Tables, & Chimney pieces, Picture frames, and Glass Sconce frames, Prints and Drawings fram’d & Glaz’d, Pictures Clean’d Lin’d & Mended with all other Carv’d & Gilt Ornaments in the Best Manner at Reasonable Rates’ (repr. Heal 1972 p.88). Robert Johnson may be the ‘Johnson’ who supplied print frames for Petworth (Jackson-Stops 1980 p.1030), but otherwise he appears to have been a fairly minor member of the trade. He is possibly 'Johnson the framemaker', from whom George Vertue purchased frames in June and July 1753 costing £4.8s in total (British Library, Add.MS 44024-5).
For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.
*Thomas Johnson, London to 1746, Liverpool 1746-1747, Dublin 1747-1748, Liverpool 1748-1753?, Dublin 1753?-1755, Queen St, Seven Dials, London 1755-1756/7, The Golden Boy, Grafton St, Soho 1757-1763, Store St c.1764-1767 or later, The Golden Boy, Charlotte St, Bloomsbury by 1775-1777, Queen’s Gardens, Brompton c.1777-1785 or later, 12 Princes Row, Pimlico by 1788-1791, 9 King St, Westminster 1793, 18 Crown St, Westminster 1795. Carver and gilder, designer.
Thomas Johnson (1723-99) is known as one of the leading designers in the rococo style through his engraved furniture designs, published 1755-62. Until the discovery of his autobiography, little had been known about his life. It is now possible to trace his activities in some detail: apprentice to his cousin Robert Johnson (qv) in 1737, journeyman for James Whittle from 1744 to 1746, almost ten years in Liverpool and Dublin from 1746 to 1755, foreman to Whittle & Norman on his return to London in 1755, designer for Thomas Vialls (qv) from the mid-1750s to the 1770s, and chapel clerk and freemason in his later years. He was declared bankrupt in 1764, and was further involved in bankruptcy proceedings in 1778, still described as of Store St (London Gazette 11 September 1764, 17 February 1778).
Johnson complained that the carving business was ruined by the invention of composition, so that by the late 1770s he seems to have given up carving, moving away from the centre of London (Simon 2003 p.54). He used the stationer, Henry Brookes (qv), as a central London address for mail, apparently in the mid-1780s (Simon 2003 p.14).
Framing work: Johnson is well known as a publisher of designs for looking glass frames. His activities in picture framing can be outlined. In 1759 he designed and supervised the production of a magnificent frame costing the huge sum of £200 for a portrait of the then Prince of Wales by Allan Ramsay, probably that painted for the Prince’s tutor Lord Bute. The frame however was burnt in the fire which wiped out the workshops of Whittle & Norman in December 1759 (Simon 2003 p.7). ‘Mr Johnson’, presumably Thomas Johnson, is credited in the Free Society of Artists exhibition catalogue in 1762 with the frame for Daniel Dodd’s pastel of Mr Vivarez, perhaps François Vivares the engraver, as Neil Jeffares has identified (see the online edition, Dictionary of pastellists before 1800, at www.pastellists.com/Suppliers.html, accessed July 2012).
According to Johnson, he received an approach from Thomas Vialls, c.1755/6, to make all his drawings and to undertake the principal part of his work, and subsequently undertook business for Vialls of upwards of £150 a year, for more than twenty-one years (Simon 2003 p.7). Vialls was a leading supplier of picture frames including to such artists as Sir Joshua Reynolds and George Stubbs. One of Johnson's apprentices, Thomas Allwood (qv), went on to become a supplier of picture frames, including to George Romney and George Stubbs.
Sources: Jacob Simon, Thomas Johnson's The Life of the Author, Furniture History Society, 2003, also published in Furniture History, vol.29, 2003, pp.1-64. For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.
*Jordan & Evans 1801-1809, Evans & Jordan 1814-1825, Jordan & Evans 1822-1825, Nathaniel John Jordan 1825-1828. At 18 Silver St, Golden Square, London 1801-1825, 89 Charlotte St, Fitzroy Square 1825-1828, 24 Mary St, Fitzroy Square 1827-1828. Carvers and gilders, picture framemakers, from 1825 a picture dealer.
Nathaniel John Jordan (1773-1843) was christened at St Pancras Old Church. He was apprenticed to William Hapgood, a leading carver and gilder, for £12 in 1788. He took out insurance with the Sun Fire Office in January 1801 and January 1805 as a carver and gilder at 18 Silver St, Golden Square, jointly with William Evans (qv) with whom he was in partnership. The partnership was variously described as Jordan & Evans and Evans & Jordan. They took George Beckham as apprentice for six years in 1801 for a premium of £10. The two men each took out insurance policies on the Silver St premises in 1819 and Jordan in 1820. The partnership between Jordan and Evans, carvers and gilders at 18 Silver St, was dissolved in January 1825 (London Gazette 11 January 1825).
Jordan then set up independently at 89 Charlotte St, taking out insurance on these premises in 1825 as a gilder and picture dealer, subsequently renewing the policy in 1827 and 1828 from 24 Mary St as a picture dealer. He seems to have retired from business in about 1828.
Jordan married Martha Jeffery in 1823 at St James Westminster, apparently his second wife. In the 1841 census he was listed at 29 Lower Eaton St, Pimlico, together with his son, Henry Nathaniel Jordan (1802-78), carver and gilder, who had been trading from this address since 1835, and previously at 34 Broad St, Golden Square. Nathaniel John Jordan died in 1843; in his will, made 30 April 1834 and proved 20 January 1844, he states that he was christened as Nathaniel John Jordan but for some time was called John Nathaniel Jordan; he describes himself as late of Charlotte St, but now of Ebury St, Pimlico, and refers to his wife Martha and son Henry Nathaniel Jordan. This son framed Stephen Pearce’s Antler with Grey Petty, 1840 (Royal Collection, see Millar 1992 no.544); subsequently, by the late 1850s, he was trading from Brixton.
Like many framemakers, Jordan & Evans were occasional customers of the specialist composition ornament makers, Thomas Jackson (qv) and his son George Jackson (qv). They used the father for framing work in 1812, and the son from 1814 to 1816, ordering composition ornament, probably for decorating picture frames (see Jackson account book, V&A Archive of Art and Design, AAD/2012/1/2/1). George Jackson apparently used Jordan’s own designs in supplying ornament to other makers so that terms such as ‘Jordans shell’, ‘Jordans corner shells’, ‘Jordan shells & undershells for corners & centre’ and ‘Jordans corners’ appear in Jackson’s account book from 1816.
Sources: London Metropolitan Archives, Sun Fire Office policy registers, 419/712742, 431/772317, 477/951233 & 951234, 483/962590, 493/997776, 521/1086720. For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.
*Henry Jouret, parish of St Anne, London 1752-1753, ‘The Architrave Frame’, Grafton St, Soho 1755, parish of St Paul Covent Garden by 1759, ‘The Gold Frame’, Maiden Lane, Covent Garden by 1772-1780, Kentish Town 1785, 1799. Carver and gilder, picture framemaker, printseller.
Henry Jouret or Jourett (active 1750, died 1805), picture framemaker of the parish of St Anne, took an apprentice, Thomas Eastaff in 1753 (Boyd). Henry Jouret married Esther Thurman in June 1750 at St Leonard Shoreditch. They had a daughter Elizabeth christened at St Anne Soho the same year and apparently nine children christened at St Paul Covent Garden between 1753 and 1768, including three successive sons by the name of Henry in 1755, 1756 and 1758. Variously described as a picture framemaker or gilder, Jouret took as apprentices Thomas Eastaff for a premium of £10 in 1752, John Guy £10 in 1759 and Job Crockett for £2.2s in 1725. Jouret took out insurance from Maiden Lane in 1772 on a house which was being built in Kentish Town (London Metropolitan Archives, Sun Fire Office policy registers, 216/314059). He put his Maiden Lane house up to let in 1780 (Public Advertiser 13 July 1780), retiring to Fitzroy Place, Kentish Town, where he was listed in 1799. His will, as Henry Jourett, picture framemaker of Kentish Town, dated 10 November 1785 and proved 18 July 1805, mentions his wife Esther.
Henry Jouret’s rococo trade card by Matthias Lock is known with two different addresses, the earlier describing him as ‘Picture Frame Maker at the Architrave Frame in Grafton Street, St. Ann’s Soho’ (repr. Murdoch 1985 p.203), the later as ‘Picture Frame-Maker and Print-Seller, at the Gold Frame the Middle of Maiden Lane Covent Garden’ (repr. Heal 1972 p.88). The remaining text, common to both cards, states that Jouret ‘Makes all sorts of Black and Gold Frames for Paintings, Prints and Glasses, and all sorts of Ornaments Carved and Guilded. NB. Prints varnished in the Best manner Reasonable Rates’.
‘Jouret’ was noted as a framemaker by the engraver, George Vertue, in one of his notebooks in or after 1751 (British Library, Add.MS 23096). However, few frames by this presumably Huguenot maker have been documented. Jouret was paid by Lord Monson for a pear-tree looking glass frame in 1755. He worked for the artist, Richard Crosse, 1775-7, being paid £5.5s for framing and packing Dr Wright’s picture in January 1775, £4.1s for two oval glasses etc in October 1777, as well as other small amounts for picture framing (V&A National Art Library, MSL/1929/2154, 2188). Jouret has sometimes been identified with Henry Joris, who worked with Paul Petit (qv) to produce frames for Frederick Prince of Wales in 1739 but this seems unlikely.
For abbreviations, see Resources and bibliography.